Orthopedic implants rely on facilitating a robust interaction between the implant material surface and the surrounding bone tissue. Ideally, the interface will encourage osseointegration with the host bone, resulting in strong fixation and implant stability. However, implant failure can occur due to the lack of integration with bone tissue or bacterial infection. The chosen material and surface topography of orthopedic implants are key factors that influence the early events following implantation and may ultimately define the success of a device. Early attachment, rapid migration and improved differentiation of stem cells to osteoblasts are necessary to populate the surface of biomedical implants, potentially preventing biofilm formation and implant-associated infection. This article explores these early stem cell specific events by seeding human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on four clinically relevant materials: polyether ether ketone (PEEK), Ti6Al4V (smooth Ti), macro-micro rough Ti6Al4V (Endoskeleton®), and macro-micro-nano rough Ti6Al4V (nanoLOCK®). The results demonstrate the incorporation of a hierarchical macro-micro-nano roughness on titanium produces a stellate morphology typical of mature osteoblasts/osteocytes, rapid and random migration, and improved osteogenic differentiation in seeded MSCs. Literature suggests rapid coverage of a surface by stem cells coupled with stimulation of bone differentiation minimizes the opportunity for biofilm formation while increasing the rate of device integration with the surrounding bone tissue.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biomedical Engineering