Hydrogenation of levulinic acid into gamma-valerolactone over in situ reduced CuAg bimetallic catalyst: Strategy and mechanism of preventing Cu leaching

Li Zhang, Jingbo Mao, Shenmin Li, Jingmei Yin, Xudong Sun, Xinwen Guo, Chunshan Song, Jinxia Zhou

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33 Scopus citations

Abstract

Metal leaching is a major issue in efficient production of γ-valerolactone (GVL) from levulinic acid (LA) under mild reaction conditions. In this study, Ag was added to Cu-supported γ-Al2O3 catalyst to suppress Cu leaching in the hydrogenation of LA into GVL. The CuAg/Al2O3 catalyst was reduced in situ during the reaction, and Cu leaching in the solution was significantly suppressed. The bimetallic catalyst without reduction pretreatment achieved approximately 100% yield to GVL and exhibited good reusability in nine consecutive cycles under mild reaction conditions of 180 °C and 1.4 MPa H2 pressure in tetrahydrofuran (THF). The strong interplay in the geometric and electronic effects between Cu and Ag was verified through XPS, H2-TPR, TEM, STEM/EDS, and XRD analyses. This paper extensively discussed the mechanism of Ag on preventing Cu leaching and the superiority of in situ reduction in solution over external reduction in gas.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalApplied Catalysis B: Environmental
Volume232
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 15 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Catalysis
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Process Chemistry and Technology

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