The isothermal nucleation and crystallization kinetics of hydrothermally prepared monoclinic and tetragonal ZrO2 have been determined at various pH conditions. It is shown that monoclinic ZrO2 precipitates at low pH whereas at high pH tetragonal ZrO2 crystallizes from an amorphous zirconium (hydrous) oxide, Zr(OH)xOy, precursor. At intermediate pH conditions mixtures of the polymorphs are formed suggestive of kinetically competing particle formation mechanisms. The data are explained by the proposed existence of three controlling regimes for the formation of crystalline ZrO2: dissolution/precipitation at low pH, a solubility controlled regime at intermediate pH values, and a gel structure controlled regime at high pH. Apparent activation energies for the nucleation and crystallization of monoclinic and tetragonal ZrO2 formed under hydrothermal conditions are presented.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Mechanics of Materials
- Mechanical Engineering