Hyper IgE syndromes comprise a group of rare primary immunodeficiency disorders characterized by a triad of atopic dermatitis, recurrent skin and lung infections along with elevated IgE levels. Job syndrome or autosomal dominant hyper IgE syndrome because of heterozygous loss-of-function mutations with dominant negative effect in signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 is the prototype of these disorders. However, several other genetically characterized immunodeficiency disorders have been identified over the past decade and joined the umbrella of hyper IgE syndromes including autosomal recessive mutations in the DOCK8, ZNF431 and PGM3 genes and heterozygous mutations with dominant negative effect in the CARD11 gene. Moreover, a number of phenotypically distinct immunodeficiency disorders can mimic hyper IgE syndromes, adding to the diagnostic challenge. Herein, we will concisely review these disorders, their molecular bases, highlighting key distinguishing clinical and laboratory findings and therapeutic options.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Allergy
- Cell Biology