Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte disorder in patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) and is associated with increased mortality on the liver transplantation (LT) waiting list. The impact of hyponatremia on outcomes after LT is unclear. Ninety-day and one-year mortality may be increased, but the data are conflicting. Hyponatremic patients have an increased rate of complications and longer hospital stays after transplant. Although rare, osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) is a feared complication after LT in the hyponatremic patient. The condition may occur when the serum sodium (sNa) concentration increases excessively during or after LT. This increase in sNa concentration correlates with the degree of preoperative hyponatremia, the amount of intraoperative blood loss, and the volume of intravenous fluid administration. The risk of developing ODS after LT can be mitigated by avoiding large perioperative increases in sNa concentration. This can be achieved through measures such as carefully increasing the sNa pretransplant, and by limiting the intravenous intra- and postoperative amounts of sodium infused. SNa concentrations should be monitored regularly throughout the entire perioperative period.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine