“Ice Cream is Worse, and Joblessness is Not an Option”: Gendered experiences of freelancing

Dunja Antunovic, Jenna Grzeslo, Anne Hoag

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


A rise in informal labor, characterized by contracted and non-salaried positions, has been observed in many industry sectors including journalism. While opportunities for freelance journalists have increased, the journalism industry has simultaneously experienced mass layoffs. Using a survey (N = 411), with quantitative and qualitative measures, this study assesses freelancers’ experiences in the US context with a particular attention to gender. The study finds that women perceive freelancing, but not full-time journalism, as compatible with raising children. Although there were no differences in perceptions about layoffs and job stability, the women in the sample were more likely to rely on freelancing as the only job and subsequently express concerns over pay. Open-ended responses provide further insight into the state of the journalism industry, full-time employment, and gender dynamics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)52-67
Number of pages16
JournalJournalism Practice
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2 2019

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Communication


Dive into the research topics of '“Ice Cream is Worse, and Joblessness is Not an Option”: Gendered experiences of freelancing'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this