The purpose of this paper is to present an identification method of the crystalline behavior of a material from a mechanical test performed on a polycrystalline sample. Because of the lack of knowledge about its crystalline behavior, this method is applied to a Zirconium alloy. This identification is based on a finite element modeling of the microstructure, and the results are compared to both the macroscopic and the microscopic experimental results. On the microscopic scale, the plastic strains are obtained using a micro-extensometry technique and the crystalline orientation using an EBSD technique. In order to validate the method, an identification is performed with only two free parameters: the evolutions of the macroscopic and microscopic errors appear to be regular and exhibit a well-defined minimum so that the parameters can be clearly identified.