Δ-6 desaturase, also known as fatty acid desaturase-2 (FADS2), is a component of a lipid metabolic pathway that converts the essential fatty acids linoleate and α-linolenate into long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Isolation of Δ-6 desaturase/FADS2 cDNA from human skin predicts an identical protein to that expressed in human brain and Southern analysis indicates a single locus, together suggestive of a single Δ-6 desaturase/FADS2 gene. Within human skin, Δ-6 desaturase/FADS2 mRNA and protein expression is restricted to differentiating sebocytes located in the suprabasal layers of the sebaceous gland. Enzymatic analysis using CHO cells overexpressing human Δ-6 desaturase/FADS2 indicates catalysis of a "polyunsaturated fatty acid type" reaction, but also an unexpected "sebaceous-type" reaction, that of converting palmitate into the mono-unsaturated fatty acid sapienate, a 16-carbon fatty acid with a single cis double bond at the sixth carbon from the carboxyl end. Sapienate is the most abundant fatty acid in human sebum, and among hair-bearing animals is restricted to humans. This work identifies Δ-6 desaturase/FADS2 as the major fatty acid desaturase in human sebaceous glands and suggests that the environment of the sebaceous gland permits catalysis of the sebaceous-type reaction and restricts catalysis of the polyunsaturated fatty acid type reaction.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology