Polycystin 2-type cation channels PKD2 and PKD2L1 interact with polycystin 1-type proteins PKD1 and PKD1L3 respectively, to form receptor-cation-channel complexes. The PKD2L1-PKD1L3 complex perceives sour taste, whereas disruption of the PKD2-PKD1 complex, responsible for mechanosensation, leads to development of ADPKD (autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease). Besides modulating channel activity and related signalling events, the CRDs (C-terminal regulatory domains) of PKD2 and PKD2L1 play a central role in channel oligomerization. The present study investigates the aggregation state of purified full-length PKD2L1-CRD as well as truncations of CRDs from PKD2 channels. Far- and near-UV CD spectroscopy show that the full-length PKD2L1 CRD (PKD2L1-198) and the truncated PKD2 CRD (PKD2-244) are α-helical with no β-sheet, the á-helix content agrees with sequence-based predictions, and some of its aromatic residues are in an asymmetric environment created at least by partially structured regions. Additionally, the CRD truncations exhibit an expected biochemical function by binding Ca2+ in a physiologically relevant range with Kd values of 2.8 μM for PKD2-244 and 0.51 μM for PKD2L1-198. Complimentary biophysical and biochemical techniques establish that truncations of the PKD2 and PKD2L1 CRDs are elongated molecules that assemble as trimers, and the trimeric aggregation state is independent of Ca2+ binding. Finally, we show that a common coiled-coil motif is sufficient and necessary to drive oligomerization of the PKD2 and PKD2L1 CRD truncations under study. Despite the moderate sequence identity (39%) between CRDs of PKD2 and PKD2L1, they both form trimers, implying that trimeric organization of CRDs may be true of all polycystin channels.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology