Employing the optical redox imaging technique, we previously identified a significant redox shift of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD and the reduced form NADH) in freshly isolated alveolar macrophages (AM) from ozone-exposed mice. The goal here was twofold: (a) to determine the NAD(H) redox shift in cryopreserved AM isolated from ozone-exposed mice and (b) to investigate whether there is a difference in the redox status between cryopreserved and freshly isolated AM. We found: (i) AM from ozone-exposed mice were in a more oxidized redox state compared to that from filtered air (FA)-exposed mice, consistent with the results obtained from freshly isolated mouse AM; (ii) under FA exposure, there was no significant NAD(H) redox difference between fresh AM that had been placed on ice for 2.5 h and cryopreserved AM; however, under ozone exposure, fresh AM were more oxidized than cryopreserved AM; (iii) via the use of nutrient starvation and replenishment and H2 O2-induced oxidative stress of an AM cell line, we showed that this redox difference between cryopreserved and freshly isolated AM is likely the result of the double “hit”, i.e., the ozone-induced oxidative stress plus nutrient starvation that prevented freshly isolated AM from a full recovery after being on ice for a prolonged time period. The cryopreservation technique we developed eliminates/minimizes the effects of oxidative stress and nutrient starvation on cells. This method can be adopted to preserve lung macrophages from animal models or clinical patients for further investigations.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Cell Biology