Objective: Although the impact of poorly controlled diabetes on surgical outcomes of patients undergoing lower extremity revascularization is well-known, it is not clear if immediate postoperative hyperglycemia (IPH) itself can be used as a surrogate for poor outcomes after peripheral arterial bypass. We sought to examine the effect of IPH in this patient population with its impact on short-term and long-term outcomes. Methods: Retrospective review was completed for 505 patients who underwent either suprainguinal bypass surgery or infrainguinal bypass surgery between July 2002 and April 2018 for the treatment of peripheral arterial disease. All patients were undergoing first-time open bypass grafting. Patients were stratified into those who were normoglycemic or hyperglycemic (glucose ≥ 140 mg/dL) within 24 hours after surgery. A comparative analysis was performed on comorbidities and outcomes. Results: Of 505 patients who underwent bypass grafting, 255 patients (50.5%) were hyperglycemic. The mean age of patients was 63.5 ± 14.1 years. The median follow-up was 5.2 years (range, 0.0-15.2 years). The distribution of procedures was as follows: femoral to popliteal bypasses (29%), femoral to femoral bypasses (17%), femoral to tibial bypasses (12%), aortobifemoral bypasses (10%), iliofemoral bypasses (9%), and axillofemoral bypasses (7%). At 30 days, hyperglycemic patients had an increased incidence of limb loss (8.3% vs 4.0%) and myocardial infarction (4.8% vs 0.8%) and incurred higher costs of hospital stay ($27,701 vs $22,990) (all P < .05). At 10 years, these patients had a higher incidence of needing major amputations (15.4% vs 9.4%; P = .025). Hyperglycemia after infrainguinal bypass was associated with nearly twice the risk of limb loss at 5 years (hazard ratio, 1.91; P = .034). Among the cohort of patients who required major amputations, the time duration between index revascularization and amputation was significantly shorter as compared with normoglycemic patients (P = .003). Conclusions: In this single-institution study with long-term follow-up, IPH was associated with increased rates of 30-day amputation and myocardial infarction, as well as an increased cost of hospital stay. In the long term, postoperative hyperglycemia was associated with greater major limb loss. Among the cohort of patients who required major amputations, the time period between revascularization and amputation was shorter for those patients who had IPH. IPH is an independent marker for poor outcomes after lower extremity revascularization procedures.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine