TY - JOUR

T1 - Immiscible/Near-Miscible relative permeability for confined fluids at high-pressure and high-temperature for a fractal reservoir

AU - Cai, Mingyu

AU - Su, Yuliang

AU - Zhan, Shiyuan

AU - Elsworth, Derek

AU - Li, Lei

N1 - Funding Information:
This project was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51974348 , 51904324 ), the Science and Technology Planning Project of Guizhou Province (No. Qian Ke He [2020]2Y028th ).
Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier Ltd

PY - 2022/2/15

Y1 - 2022/2/15

N2 - The complex interaction between fluids and solids in reservoirs includes interface slip, capillary confinement and the diffusion and mass transfer between CO2 and oil and results in intensely nonlinear flow complexity. This study proposes a relative permeability model that accommodates a fractal pore size distribution and honors these complex process interactions. The relative permeability to CO2 flooding, in the near-miscible region, is predicted through interpolation based on the Gibbs free energy (GFE). The thermodynamic phase behavior of the fluids in the nanopores is considered by applying critical shifts in the temperatures and pressures. A volume-translated Peng-Robinson equation of state is used to calculate the CO2 and n-alkane densities to high reservoir pressure. Fluid-based correlation and modified volumetric mixing rules are then used to extend the viscosity calculations to mixtures with heavy hydrocarbon components. Predictions from the proposed model better fit experimental observations relative to previous models similarly incorporating fractal theory. The nanopores are shown to increase the relative permeability of the non-wetting phase by decreasing the viscosity ratio of the two phases. Increasing key parameters that are related to the pore structure, e.g. the fractal dimension, Df, and critical pore radius, rc, increases the relative permeability of the non-wetting phase. The GFE-based interpolation contributes to the smooth and continuous change in the relative permeability parameters local to the critical point of the mixture, with the confined fluid more likely to be miscible at the same pressure than the bulk fluid. This model can be integrated with a compositional simulator to solve field-scale problems but accommodating the micro-scale physics of unconventional reservoirs.

AB - The complex interaction between fluids and solids in reservoirs includes interface slip, capillary confinement and the diffusion and mass transfer between CO2 and oil and results in intensely nonlinear flow complexity. This study proposes a relative permeability model that accommodates a fractal pore size distribution and honors these complex process interactions. The relative permeability to CO2 flooding, in the near-miscible region, is predicted through interpolation based on the Gibbs free energy (GFE). The thermodynamic phase behavior of the fluids in the nanopores is considered by applying critical shifts in the temperatures and pressures. A volume-translated Peng-Robinson equation of state is used to calculate the CO2 and n-alkane densities to high reservoir pressure. Fluid-based correlation and modified volumetric mixing rules are then used to extend the viscosity calculations to mixtures with heavy hydrocarbon components. Predictions from the proposed model better fit experimental observations relative to previous models similarly incorporating fractal theory. The nanopores are shown to increase the relative permeability of the non-wetting phase by decreasing the viscosity ratio of the two phases. Increasing key parameters that are related to the pore structure, e.g. the fractal dimension, Df, and critical pore radius, rc, increases the relative permeability of the non-wetting phase. The GFE-based interpolation contributes to the smooth and continuous change in the relative permeability parameters local to the critical point of the mixture, with the confined fluid more likely to be miscible at the same pressure than the bulk fluid. This model can be integrated with a compositional simulator to solve field-scale problems but accommodating the micro-scale physics of unconventional reservoirs.

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U2 - 10.1016/j.fuel.2021.122389

DO - 10.1016/j.fuel.2021.122389

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85118540032

SN - 0016-2361

VL - 310

JO - Fuel

JF - Fuel

M1 - 122389

ER -