Impact of acidic pH on plant cell wall polysaccharide structure and dynamics: insights into the mechanism of acid growth in plants from solid-state NMR

Pyae Phyo, Ying Gu, Mei Hong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Abstract: Acidification of plant primary cell walls causes cell wall expansion and plant growth. To understand how acidic pH affects the molecular structure and dynamics of wall polysaccharides, we have now characterized and compared Arabidopsis thaliana primary cell walls in neutral (pH 6.8) and acidic (pH 4.0) conditions using solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Quantitative 13 C solid-state NMR spectra indicate that the pH 4.0 cell wall has neutral galacturonic acid residues in homogalacturonan (HG) and rhamnogalacturonan (RG). 13 C INEPT spectra, which selectively detect highly dynamic polymers, indicate that some of the HG and RG chains in the interfibrillar region have become more dynamic in the acidic wall compared to the neutral cell wall, whereas other chains have become more rigid. Consistent with this increased dynamic heterogeneity, C–H dipolar couplings and 2D 13 C– 13 C correlation spectra indicate that some of the HG backbones are partially aggregated in the acidic cell wall. Moreover, 2D correlation spectra measured with long mixing times indicate that the acidic cell wall has weaker cellulose–pectin interactions, and water-polysaccharide 1 H spin diffusion data show that cellulose microfibrils are better hydrated at low pH. Taken together, these results indicate a cascade of chemical and conformational changes of wall polysaccharides due to cell wall acidification. These changes start with neutralization of the pectic polysaccharides, which disrupts calcium crosslinking of HG, causes partial aggregation of the interfibrillar HG, weakens cellulose–pectin interactions, and increases the hydration of both cellulose microfibrils and matrix polysaccharides. These molecular-level structural and dynamical changes are expected to facilitate polysaccharide slippage, which underlies cell wall loosening and expansion, and may occur both independent of and as a consequence of protein-mediated wall loosening.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)291-304
Number of pages14
JournalCellulose
Volume26
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 15 2019

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Polysaccharides
Cells
Nuclear magnetic resonance
Acids
Acidification
Cellulose
Plant Cells
Hydration
Crosslinking
Molecular structure
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Molecular dynamics
Calcium
Polymers
Agglomeration
polygalacturonic acid
Proteins
Hydrogen
Water

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Polymers and Plastics

Cite this

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title = "Impact of acidic pH on plant cell wall polysaccharide structure and dynamics: insights into the mechanism of acid growth in plants from solid-state NMR",
abstract = "Abstract: Acidification of plant primary cell walls causes cell wall expansion and plant growth. To understand how acidic pH affects the molecular structure and dynamics of wall polysaccharides, we have now characterized and compared Arabidopsis thaliana primary cell walls in neutral (pH 6.8) and acidic (pH 4.0) conditions using solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Quantitative 13 C solid-state NMR spectra indicate that the pH 4.0 cell wall has neutral galacturonic acid residues in homogalacturonan (HG) and rhamnogalacturonan (RG). 13 C INEPT spectra, which selectively detect highly dynamic polymers, indicate that some of the HG and RG chains in the interfibrillar region have become more dynamic in the acidic wall compared to the neutral cell wall, whereas other chains have become more rigid. Consistent with this increased dynamic heterogeneity, C–H dipolar couplings and 2D 13 C– 13 C correlation spectra indicate that some of the HG backbones are partially aggregated in the acidic cell wall. Moreover, 2D correlation spectra measured with long mixing times indicate that the acidic cell wall has weaker cellulose–pectin interactions, and water-polysaccharide 1 H spin diffusion data show that cellulose microfibrils are better hydrated at low pH. Taken together, these results indicate a cascade of chemical and conformational changes of wall polysaccharides due to cell wall acidification. These changes start with neutralization of the pectic polysaccharides, which disrupts calcium crosslinking of HG, causes partial aggregation of the interfibrillar HG, weakens cellulose–pectin interactions, and increases the hydration of both cellulose microfibrils and matrix polysaccharides. These molecular-level structural and dynamical changes are expected to facilitate polysaccharide slippage, which underlies cell wall loosening and expansion, and may occur both independent of and as a consequence of protein-mediated wall loosening.",
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Impact of acidic pH on plant cell wall polysaccharide structure and dynamics : insights into the mechanism of acid growth in plants from solid-state NMR. / Phyo, Pyae; Gu, Ying; Hong, Mei.

In: Cellulose, Vol. 26, No. 1, 15.01.2019, p. 291-304.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Impact of acidic pH on plant cell wall polysaccharide structure and dynamics

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AB - Abstract: Acidification of plant primary cell walls causes cell wall expansion and plant growth. To understand how acidic pH affects the molecular structure and dynamics of wall polysaccharides, we have now characterized and compared Arabidopsis thaliana primary cell walls in neutral (pH 6.8) and acidic (pH 4.0) conditions using solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Quantitative 13 C solid-state NMR spectra indicate that the pH 4.0 cell wall has neutral galacturonic acid residues in homogalacturonan (HG) and rhamnogalacturonan (RG). 13 C INEPT spectra, which selectively detect highly dynamic polymers, indicate that some of the HG and RG chains in the interfibrillar region have become more dynamic in the acidic wall compared to the neutral cell wall, whereas other chains have become more rigid. Consistent with this increased dynamic heterogeneity, C–H dipolar couplings and 2D 13 C– 13 C correlation spectra indicate that some of the HG backbones are partially aggregated in the acidic cell wall. Moreover, 2D correlation spectra measured with long mixing times indicate that the acidic cell wall has weaker cellulose–pectin interactions, and water-polysaccharide 1 H spin diffusion data show that cellulose microfibrils are better hydrated at low pH. Taken together, these results indicate a cascade of chemical and conformational changes of wall polysaccharides due to cell wall acidification. These changes start with neutralization of the pectic polysaccharides, which disrupts calcium crosslinking of HG, causes partial aggregation of the interfibrillar HG, weakens cellulose–pectin interactions, and increases the hydration of both cellulose microfibrils and matrix polysaccharides. These molecular-level structural and dynamical changes are expected to facilitate polysaccharide slippage, which underlies cell wall loosening and expansion, and may occur both independent of and as a consequence of protein-mediated wall loosening.

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