Impact of aerobic exercise training on age-related changes in insulin sensitivity and muscle oxidative capacity

Kevin R. Short, Janet L. Vittone, Maureen L. Bigelow, David Nathan Proctor, Robert A. Rizza, Jill M. Coenen-Schimke, K. Sreekumaran Nair

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

413 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Insulin resistance increases and muscle oxidative capacity decreases during aging, but lifestyle changes especially physical activity - may reverse these trends. Here we report the effect of a 16-week aerobic exercise program (n = 65) or control activity (n = 37) performed by men and women aged 21-87 years on insulin sensitivity and muscle mitochondria. Insulin sensitivity, measured by intravenous glucose tolerance test, decreased with age (r = -0.32) and was related to abdominal fat content (r = -0.65). Exercise increased peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak; 10%), activity of muscle mitochondrial enzymes (citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase, 45-76%) and mRNA levels of mitochondrial genes (COX4, ND4, both 66%) and genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α, 55%; NRF-1, 15%; TFAM, 85%). Exercise also increased muscle GLUT4 mRNA and protein (30-52%) and reduced abdominal fat (5%) and plasma triglycerides (25%). None of these changes were affected by age. In contrast, insulin sensitivity improved in younger people but not in middle-aged or older groups. Thus, the muscle mitochondrial response to 4 months of aerobic exercise training was similar in all age-groups, although the older people did not have an improvement in insulin sensitivity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1888-1896
Number of pages9
JournalDiabetes
Volume52
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2003

Fingerprint

Insulin Resistance
Exercise
Muscles
Abdominal Fat
Glucose Transporter Type 4
Muscle Mitochondrion
Citrate (si)-Synthase
Messenger RNA
Mitochondrial Genes
Muscle Proteins
Organelle Biogenesis
Electron Transport Complex IV
Glucose Tolerance Test
Life Style
Triglycerides
Age Groups
Oxygen
Enzymes
Genes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

Short, K. R., Vittone, J. L., Bigelow, M. L., Proctor, D. N., Rizza, R. A., Coenen-Schimke, J. M., & Nair, K. S. (2003). Impact of aerobic exercise training on age-related changes in insulin sensitivity and muscle oxidative capacity. Diabetes, 52(8), 1888-1896. https://doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.52.8.1888
Short, Kevin R. ; Vittone, Janet L. ; Bigelow, Maureen L. ; Proctor, David Nathan ; Rizza, Robert A. ; Coenen-Schimke, Jill M. ; Nair, K. Sreekumaran. / Impact of aerobic exercise training on age-related changes in insulin sensitivity and muscle oxidative capacity. In: Diabetes. 2003 ; Vol. 52, No. 8. pp. 1888-1896.
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Short, KR, Vittone, JL, Bigelow, ML, Proctor, DN, Rizza, RA, Coenen-Schimke, JM & Nair, KS 2003, 'Impact of aerobic exercise training on age-related changes in insulin sensitivity and muscle oxidative capacity', Diabetes, vol. 52, no. 8, pp. 1888-1896. https://doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.52.8.1888

Impact of aerobic exercise training on age-related changes in insulin sensitivity and muscle oxidative capacity. / Short, Kevin R.; Vittone, Janet L.; Bigelow, Maureen L.; Proctor, David Nathan; Rizza, Robert A.; Coenen-Schimke, Jill M.; Nair, K. Sreekumaran.

In: Diabetes, Vol. 52, No. 8, 01.08.2003, p. 1888-1896.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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