Impact of Ammonia During Composting on Calonectria pseudonaviculata and C. henricotiae, Causal Agents of Boxwood Blight

Robert J. Harvey, Nina Shishkoff, John Andrew Pecchia, Donald Durwood Davis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Boxwood (Buxus spp.) blight is a devastating disease caused by the Ascomycete fungus Calonectria pseudonaviculata in the U.S. and Europe. A second Calonectria species, C. henricotiae, is also pathogenic on boxwood in Europe, but is not present in the U.S. where it is classified as a quarantine pathogen. Composting can eradicate various plant pathogens and high temperature is likely the most important factor influencing pathogen eradication. We previously reported that C. pseudonaviculata microsclerotia survived exposure to 40 °C in an incubator without compost, whereas exposure to the same temperature and time, but with compost added, greatly decreased survival. That is, the decrease in Calonectria growth and survival in compost was greater than could be accounted for by high temperature alone. We hypothesized that the enhanced decrease in Calonectria growth and survival might be due to ammonia, a fungitoxic gas produced during composting. In this laboratory study, we determined that ammonia within agar in Petri plates reduced radial growth of both C. pseudonaviculata and C. henricotiae. In studies with C. pseudonaviculata, gaseous ammonia reduced microsclerotia survival. Our findings suggest that composting dead or dying blighted boxwoods in the presence of ammonia could reduce dissemination of both Calonectria species from blighted to healthy boxwoods.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)116-123
Number of pages8
JournalCompost Science and Utilization
Volume27
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 3 2019

Fingerprint

Calonectria
Buxus sempervirens
composting
blight
ammonia
compost
pathogen
composts
quarantine
Buxus
temperature
agar
pathogens
Ascomycota
plant pathogens
fungus
gases
gas
fungi

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ecology
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Soil Science

Cite this

@article{d4e1a38f99804c91a22c42bcb222be33,
title = "Impact of Ammonia During Composting on Calonectria pseudonaviculata and C. henricotiae, Causal Agents of Boxwood Blight",
abstract = "Boxwood (Buxus spp.) blight is a devastating disease caused by the Ascomycete fungus Calonectria pseudonaviculata in the U.S. and Europe. A second Calonectria species, C. henricotiae, is also pathogenic on boxwood in Europe, but is not present in the U.S. where it is classified as a quarantine pathogen. Composting can eradicate various plant pathogens and high temperature is likely the most important factor influencing pathogen eradication. We previously reported that C. pseudonaviculata microsclerotia survived exposure to 40 °C in an incubator without compost, whereas exposure to the same temperature and time, but with compost added, greatly decreased survival. That is, the decrease in Calonectria growth and survival in compost was greater than could be accounted for by high temperature alone. We hypothesized that the enhanced decrease in Calonectria growth and survival might be due to ammonia, a fungitoxic gas produced during composting. In this laboratory study, we determined that ammonia within agar in Petri plates reduced radial growth of both C. pseudonaviculata and C. henricotiae. In studies with C. pseudonaviculata, gaseous ammonia reduced microsclerotia survival. Our findings suggest that composting dead or dying blighted boxwoods in the presence of ammonia could reduce dissemination of both Calonectria species from blighted to healthy boxwoods.",
author = "Harvey, {Robert J.} and Nina Shishkoff and Pecchia, {John Andrew} and Davis, {Donald Durwood}",
year = "2019",
month = "4",
day = "3",
doi = "10.1080/1065657X.2019.1586595",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "27",
pages = "116--123",
journal = "Compost Science and Utilization",
issn = "1065-657X",
publisher = "JG Press Inc.",
number = "2",

}

Impact of Ammonia During Composting on Calonectria pseudonaviculata and C. henricotiae, Causal Agents of Boxwood Blight. / Harvey, Robert J.; Shishkoff, Nina; Pecchia, John Andrew; Davis, Donald Durwood.

In: Compost Science and Utilization, Vol. 27, No. 2, 03.04.2019, p. 116-123.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Impact of Ammonia During Composting on Calonectria pseudonaviculata and C. henricotiae, Causal Agents of Boxwood Blight

AU - Harvey, Robert J.

AU - Shishkoff, Nina

AU - Pecchia, John Andrew

AU - Davis, Donald Durwood

PY - 2019/4/3

Y1 - 2019/4/3

N2 - Boxwood (Buxus spp.) blight is a devastating disease caused by the Ascomycete fungus Calonectria pseudonaviculata in the U.S. and Europe. A second Calonectria species, C. henricotiae, is also pathogenic on boxwood in Europe, but is not present in the U.S. where it is classified as a quarantine pathogen. Composting can eradicate various plant pathogens and high temperature is likely the most important factor influencing pathogen eradication. We previously reported that C. pseudonaviculata microsclerotia survived exposure to 40 °C in an incubator without compost, whereas exposure to the same temperature and time, but with compost added, greatly decreased survival. That is, the decrease in Calonectria growth and survival in compost was greater than could be accounted for by high temperature alone. We hypothesized that the enhanced decrease in Calonectria growth and survival might be due to ammonia, a fungitoxic gas produced during composting. In this laboratory study, we determined that ammonia within agar in Petri plates reduced radial growth of both C. pseudonaviculata and C. henricotiae. In studies with C. pseudonaviculata, gaseous ammonia reduced microsclerotia survival. Our findings suggest that composting dead or dying blighted boxwoods in the presence of ammonia could reduce dissemination of both Calonectria species from blighted to healthy boxwoods.

AB - Boxwood (Buxus spp.) blight is a devastating disease caused by the Ascomycete fungus Calonectria pseudonaviculata in the U.S. and Europe. A second Calonectria species, C. henricotiae, is also pathogenic on boxwood in Europe, but is not present in the U.S. where it is classified as a quarantine pathogen. Composting can eradicate various plant pathogens and high temperature is likely the most important factor influencing pathogen eradication. We previously reported that C. pseudonaviculata microsclerotia survived exposure to 40 °C in an incubator without compost, whereas exposure to the same temperature and time, but with compost added, greatly decreased survival. That is, the decrease in Calonectria growth and survival in compost was greater than could be accounted for by high temperature alone. We hypothesized that the enhanced decrease in Calonectria growth and survival might be due to ammonia, a fungitoxic gas produced during composting. In this laboratory study, we determined that ammonia within agar in Petri plates reduced radial growth of both C. pseudonaviculata and C. henricotiae. In studies with C. pseudonaviculata, gaseous ammonia reduced microsclerotia survival. Our findings suggest that composting dead or dying blighted boxwoods in the presence of ammonia could reduce dissemination of both Calonectria species from blighted to healthy boxwoods.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85067251983&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85067251983&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1080/1065657X.2019.1586595

DO - 10.1080/1065657X.2019.1586595

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85067251983

VL - 27

SP - 116

EP - 123

JO - Compost Science and Utilization

JF - Compost Science and Utilization

SN - 1065-657X

IS - 2

ER -