Impact of composition on the heat treatment response of additively manufactured 17–4 PH grade stainless steel

S. D. Meredith, J. S. Zuback, Jayme Scot Keist, Todd Palmer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Precipitation hardened (PH) martensitic grade stainless steels are commonly used in additive manufacturing (AM) processes, but the heat treatment response can vary depending upon the powder feedstock composition. As-built AM 17–4 PH grade stainless steel fabricated using argon and nitrogen atomized feedstocks in separate powder bed fusion systems responded differently to standard heat treatment cycles. Materials fabricated from argon atomized feedstocks, containing low levels of nitrogen (0.01 wt%) and retained austenite (< 1%), responded as expected to standard solutionizing and aging heat treatment cycles. In contrast, materials fabricated from nitrogen atomized feedstocks, containing between 0.06 and 0.12 wt% nitrogen and up to 81% retained austenite, did not display peak aging with standard heat treatments and deviated from the expected overaging response with increasing aging temperatures. At the highest nitrogen and retained austenite levels, peak aging is found to occur at temperatures in excess of 680 °C, even though the material still contains retained austenite levels in the 20% range. These unexpected changes in the heat treat response are closely linked to differences in the nitrogen composition of the powder feedstock. Changes in the Ni and Cr equivalent values determined by other primary alloying elements also impact the heat treat response, even though the alloy compositions still fall within standard alloy element composition ranges.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)44-56
Number of pages13
JournalMaterials Science and Engineering A
Volume738
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 19 2018

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Stainless Steel
stainless steels
grade
heat treatment
Nitrogen
Stainless steel
Feedstocks
Heat treatment
austenite
nitrogen
Austenite
3D printers
Aging of materials
Chemical analysis
Powders
Argon
manufacturing
argon
heat
cycles

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering

Cite this

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title = "Impact of composition on the heat treatment response of additively manufactured 17–4 PH grade stainless steel",
abstract = "Precipitation hardened (PH) martensitic grade stainless steels are commonly used in additive manufacturing (AM) processes, but the heat treatment response can vary depending upon the powder feedstock composition. As-built AM 17–4 PH grade stainless steel fabricated using argon and nitrogen atomized feedstocks in separate powder bed fusion systems responded differently to standard heat treatment cycles. Materials fabricated from argon atomized feedstocks, containing low levels of nitrogen (0.01 wt{\%}) and retained austenite (< 1{\%}), responded as expected to standard solutionizing and aging heat treatment cycles. In contrast, materials fabricated from nitrogen atomized feedstocks, containing between 0.06 and 0.12 wt{\%} nitrogen and up to 81{\%} retained austenite, did not display peak aging with standard heat treatments and deviated from the expected overaging response with increasing aging temperatures. At the highest nitrogen and retained austenite levels, peak aging is found to occur at temperatures in excess of 680 °C, even though the material still contains retained austenite levels in the 20{\%} range. These unexpected changes in the heat treat response are closely linked to differences in the nitrogen composition of the powder feedstock. Changes in the Ni and Cr equivalent values determined by other primary alloying elements also impact the heat treat response, even though the alloy compositions still fall within standard alloy element composition ranges.",
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Impact of composition on the heat treatment response of additively manufactured 17–4 PH grade stainless steel. / Meredith, S. D.; Zuback, J. S.; Keist, Jayme Scot; Palmer, Todd.

In: Materials Science and Engineering A, Vol. 738, 19.12.2018, p. 44-56.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AB - Precipitation hardened (PH) martensitic grade stainless steels are commonly used in additive manufacturing (AM) processes, but the heat treatment response can vary depending upon the powder feedstock composition. As-built AM 17–4 PH grade stainless steel fabricated using argon and nitrogen atomized feedstocks in separate powder bed fusion systems responded differently to standard heat treatment cycles. Materials fabricated from argon atomized feedstocks, containing low levels of nitrogen (0.01 wt%) and retained austenite (< 1%), responded as expected to standard solutionizing and aging heat treatment cycles. In contrast, materials fabricated from nitrogen atomized feedstocks, containing between 0.06 and 0.12 wt% nitrogen and up to 81% retained austenite, did not display peak aging with standard heat treatments and deviated from the expected overaging response with increasing aging temperatures. At the highest nitrogen and retained austenite levels, peak aging is found to occur at temperatures in excess of 680 °C, even though the material still contains retained austenite levels in the 20% range. These unexpected changes in the heat treat response are closely linked to differences in the nitrogen composition of the powder feedstock. Changes in the Ni and Cr equivalent values determined by other primary alloying elements also impact the heat treat response, even though the alloy compositions still fall within standard alloy element composition ranges.

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