Sintering of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) at high temperatures results in loss of Pb unless an ambient Pb activity is maintained. The tell-tale sign of Pb loss is an increased conductivity, usually manifested in unacceptably high values of tan -. The conductivity is caused by oxygen vacancies and/or electron holes which are a byproduct of Pb evaporation. In the first part of this paper, it is shown how impedance spectroscopy can be used to separate ionic and electronic conductivity in a properly designed sample by selection of appropriate boundary conditions. Subsequently, impedance is used to probe defect concentrations in PZT during prolonged annealing at 700°C. It is found that oxygen vacancies are generated during annealing in air but the rate of generation actually decreases upon lowering the ambient pO 2. These results are explained by a model of Pb evaporation which, in this case, leads predominantly to oxygen vacancy generation. In principle, this effect could be used to generate a specific vacancy concentration in similar Pb-based oxides.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||5|
|Journal||IEEE transactions on ultrasonics, ferroelectrics, and frequency control|
|State||Published - 2012|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Acoustics and Ultrasonics
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering