Impedance spectroscopy of PZT ceramics- measuring diffusion coefficients, mixed conduction, and Pb loss

Niall J. Donnelly, Clive A. Randall

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations

Abstract

Sintering of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) at high temperatures results in loss of Pb unless an ambient Pb activity is maintained. The tell-tale sign of Pb loss is an increased conductivity, usually manifested in unacceptably high values of tan -. The conductivity is caused by oxygen vacancies and/or electron holes which are a byproduct of Pb evaporation. In the first part of this paper, it is shown how impedance spectroscopy can be used to separate ionic and electronic conductivity in a properly designed sample by selection of appropriate boundary conditions. Subsequently, impedance is used to probe defect concentrations in PZT during prolonged annealing at 700°C. It is found that oxygen vacancies are generated during annealing in air but the rate of generation actually decreases upon lowering the ambient pO 2. These results are explained by a model of Pb evaporation which, in this case, leads predominantly to oxygen vacancy generation. In principle, this effect could be used to generate a specific vacancy concentration in similar Pb-based oxides.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6306003
Pages (from-to)1883-1887
Number of pages5
JournalIEEE transactions on ultrasonics, ferroelectrics, and frequency control
Volume59
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - 2012

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Instrumentation
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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