Imperfect vaccination can enhance the transmission of highly virulent pathogens

Andrew Fraser Read, Susan J. Baigent, Claire Powers, Lydia B. Kgosana, Luke Blackwell, Lorraine P. Smith, David A. Kennedy, Stephen W. Walkden-Brown, Venugopal K. Nair

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

106 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Could some vaccines drive the evolution of more virulent pathogens? Conventional wisdom is that natural selection will remove highly lethal pathogens if host death greatly reduces transmission. Vaccines that keep hosts alive but still allow transmission could thus allow very virulent strains to circulate in a population. Here we show experimentally that immunization of chickens against Marek's disease virus enhances the fitness of more virulent strains, making it possible for hyperpathogenic strains to transmit. Immunity elicited by direct vaccination or by maternal vaccination prolongs host survival but does not prevent infection, viral replication or transmission, thus extending the infectious periods of strains otherwise too lethal to persist. Our data show that anti-disease vaccines that do not prevent transmission can create conditions that promote the emergence of pathogen strains that cause more severe disease in unvaccinated hosts.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalPLoS biology
Volume13
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015

Fingerprint

Pathogens
Vaccination
Vaccines
vaccination
pathogens
vaccines
Marek Disease
Genetic Selection
Virus Diseases
Immunization
Mardivirus
Chickens
Immunity
virus replication
Viruses
Mothers
natural selection
immunization
immunity
death

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

Cite this

Read, A. F., Baigent, S. J., Powers, C., Kgosana, L. B., Blackwell, L., Smith, L. P., ... Nair, V. K. (2015). Imperfect vaccination can enhance the transmission of highly virulent pathogens. PLoS biology, 13(7). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002198
Read, Andrew Fraser ; Baigent, Susan J. ; Powers, Claire ; Kgosana, Lydia B. ; Blackwell, Luke ; Smith, Lorraine P. ; Kennedy, David A. ; Walkden-Brown, Stephen W. ; Nair, Venugopal K. / Imperfect vaccination can enhance the transmission of highly virulent pathogens. In: PLoS biology. 2015 ; Vol. 13, No. 7.
@article{e6c70bbb3c47455f979bb997ed08f50b,
title = "Imperfect vaccination can enhance the transmission of highly virulent pathogens",
abstract = "Could some vaccines drive the evolution of more virulent pathogens? Conventional wisdom is that natural selection will remove highly lethal pathogens if host death greatly reduces transmission. Vaccines that keep hosts alive but still allow transmission could thus allow very virulent strains to circulate in a population. Here we show experimentally that immunization of chickens against Marek's disease virus enhances the fitness of more virulent strains, making it possible for hyperpathogenic strains to transmit. Immunity elicited by direct vaccination or by maternal vaccination prolongs host survival but does not prevent infection, viral replication or transmission, thus extending the infectious periods of strains otherwise too lethal to persist. Our data show that anti-disease vaccines that do not prevent transmission can create conditions that promote the emergence of pathogen strains that cause more severe disease in unvaccinated hosts.",
author = "Read, {Andrew Fraser} and Baigent, {Susan J.} and Claire Powers and Kgosana, {Lydia B.} and Luke Blackwell and Smith, {Lorraine P.} and Kennedy, {David A.} and Walkden-Brown, {Stephen W.} and Nair, {Venugopal K.}",
year = "2015",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1371/journal.pbio.1002198",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "13",
journal = "PLoS Biology",
issn = "1544-9173",
publisher = "Public Library of Science",
number = "7",

}

Read, AF, Baigent, SJ, Powers, C, Kgosana, LB, Blackwell, L, Smith, LP, Kennedy, DA, Walkden-Brown, SW & Nair, VK 2015, 'Imperfect vaccination can enhance the transmission of highly virulent pathogens', PLoS biology, vol. 13, no. 7. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002198

Imperfect vaccination can enhance the transmission of highly virulent pathogens. / Read, Andrew Fraser; Baigent, Susan J.; Powers, Claire; Kgosana, Lydia B.; Blackwell, Luke; Smith, Lorraine P.; Kennedy, David A.; Walkden-Brown, Stephen W.; Nair, Venugopal K.

In: PLoS biology, Vol. 13, No. 7, 01.01.2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Imperfect vaccination can enhance the transmission of highly virulent pathogens

AU - Read, Andrew Fraser

AU - Baigent, Susan J.

AU - Powers, Claire

AU - Kgosana, Lydia B.

AU - Blackwell, Luke

AU - Smith, Lorraine P.

AU - Kennedy, David A.

AU - Walkden-Brown, Stephen W.

AU - Nair, Venugopal K.

PY - 2015/1/1

Y1 - 2015/1/1

N2 - Could some vaccines drive the evolution of more virulent pathogens? Conventional wisdom is that natural selection will remove highly lethal pathogens if host death greatly reduces transmission. Vaccines that keep hosts alive but still allow transmission could thus allow very virulent strains to circulate in a population. Here we show experimentally that immunization of chickens against Marek's disease virus enhances the fitness of more virulent strains, making it possible for hyperpathogenic strains to transmit. Immunity elicited by direct vaccination or by maternal vaccination prolongs host survival but does not prevent infection, viral replication or transmission, thus extending the infectious periods of strains otherwise too lethal to persist. Our data show that anti-disease vaccines that do not prevent transmission can create conditions that promote the emergence of pathogen strains that cause more severe disease in unvaccinated hosts.

AB - Could some vaccines drive the evolution of more virulent pathogens? Conventional wisdom is that natural selection will remove highly lethal pathogens if host death greatly reduces transmission. Vaccines that keep hosts alive but still allow transmission could thus allow very virulent strains to circulate in a population. Here we show experimentally that immunization of chickens against Marek's disease virus enhances the fitness of more virulent strains, making it possible for hyperpathogenic strains to transmit. Immunity elicited by direct vaccination or by maternal vaccination prolongs host survival but does not prevent infection, viral replication or transmission, thus extending the infectious periods of strains otherwise too lethal to persist. Our data show that anti-disease vaccines that do not prevent transmission can create conditions that promote the emergence of pathogen strains that cause more severe disease in unvaccinated hosts.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84938705064&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84938705064&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1371/journal.pbio.1002198

DO - 10.1371/journal.pbio.1002198

M3 - Article

VL - 13

JO - PLoS Biology

JF - PLoS Biology

SN - 1544-9173

IS - 7

ER -