In situ characterization of laser-generated melt pools using synchronized ultrasound and high-speed X-ray imaging

Jared Gillespie, Wei Yi Yeoh, Cang Zhao, Niranjan D. Parab, Tao Sun, Anthony D. Rollett, Bo Lan, Christopher M. Kube

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Metal additive manufacturing is a fabrication method that forms a part by fusing layers of powder to one another. An energy source, such as a laser, is commonly used to heat the metal powder sufficiently to cause a molten pool to form, which is known as the melt pool. The melt pool can exist in the conduction or the keyhole mode where the material begins to rapidly evaporate. The interaction between the laser and the material is physically complex and difficult to predict or measure. In this article, high-speed X-ray imaging was combined with immersion ultrasound to obtain synchronized measurements of stationary laser-generated melt pools. Furthermore, two-dimensional and three-dimensional finite-element simulations were conducted to help explain the ultrasonic response in the experiments. In particular, the time-of-flight and amplitude in pulse-echo configuration were observed to have a linear relationship to the depth of the melt pool. These results are promising for the use of ultrasound to characterize the melt pool behavior and for finite-element simulations to aid in interpretation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2409-2420
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of the Acoustical Society of America
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 1 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics

Cite this