In Their Own Words: Resources Needed by School Nurses to Facilitate Student Immunization Compliance

Alicia M. Hoke, Heather Stuckey, Chelsea M. Keller, Zhexi Lu, Elizabeth A. Hivner, William A. Calo, Janine M. Strick, Jennifer Kraschnewski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: All 50 states have school-entry immunization requirements, and many also allow exemptions based on medical and non-medical reasons. School nurses are responsible for managing student immunization compliance based on state policies, but lack standardized resources and guidance. METHODS: Pennsylvania school nurses (N = 21) participated in semi-structured interviews regarding their strategies for communication and management of student immunization information, along with resources needed for practice improvement. Data were analyzed using descriptive content analysis. RESULTS: Nurses reported similarities in timelines used for communication of immunization requirements, but differences in mechanisms used to secure and manage immunization records. Nurses reported a need for clarity regarding exclusions and exemption policy implementation and requested standardized resources and guidance for navigating immunization compliance. CONCLUSIONS: A need exists for standardized processes that support immunization compliance. Furthermore, nurses highlighted a need for additional training and enhanced networks to develop creative strategies for promoting immunization uptake among families.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)218-226
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of School Health
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Education
  • Philosophy
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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