Purpose: Robust experimental data for performing validation of fluid–structure interaction (FSI) simulations of the transport of deformable solid bodies in internal flow are currently lacking. This in vitro experimental study characterizes the clot trapping efficiency of a new generic conical-type inferior vena cava (IVC) filter in a rigid anatomical model of the IVC with carefully characterized test conditions, fluid rheological properties, and clot mechanical properties. Methods: Various sizes of spherical and cylindrical clots made of synthetic materials (nylon and polyacrylamide gel) and bovine blood are serially injected into the anatomical IVC model under worst-case exercise flow conditions. Clot trapping efficiencies and their uncertainties are then quantified for each combination of clot shape, size, and material. Results: Experiments reveal the clot trapping efficiency increases with increasing clot diameter and length, with trapping efficiencies ranging from as low as approximately 42% for small 3.2 mm diameter spherical clots up to 100% for larger clot sizes. Because of the asymmetry of the anatomical IVC model, the data also reveal the iliac vein of clot origin influences the clot trapping efficiency, with the trapping efficiency for clots injected into the left iliac vein up to a factor of 7.5 times greater than that for clots injected into the right iliac (trapping efficiencies of approximately 10% versus 75%, respectively). Conclusion: Overall, this data set provides a benchmark for validating simulations predicting IVC filter clot trapping efficiency and, more generally, low-Reynolds number FSI modeling.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biomedical Engineering
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine