In vitro cytocompatibility evaluation of poly(octamethylene citrate) monomers toward their use in orthopedic regenerative engineering

Chuying Ma, Ethan Gerhard, Qiaoling Lin, Silun Xia, April Armstrong, Jian Yang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Citrate based polymer poly(octamethylene citrate) (POC) has shown promise when formulated into composite material containing up to 65 wt% hydroxylapatite (HA) for orthopedic applications. Despite significant research into POC, insufficient information about the biocompatibility of the monomers 1,8-Octanediol and Citrate used in its synthesis is available. Herein, we investigated the acute cytotoxicity, immune response, and long-term functionality of both monomers. Our results showed a cell-type dependent cytotoxicity of the two monomers: 1,8-Octanediol induced less acute toxicity to 3T3 fibroblasts than Citrate while presenting comparable cytotoxicity to MG63 osteoblast-like cells; however, Citrate demonstrated enhanced compatibility with hMSCs compared to 1,8-Octanediol. The critical cytotoxic concentration values EC30 and EC50, standard for comparing cytotoxicity of chemicals, were also provided. Additionally, Citrate showed slower and less inhibitory effects on long-term hMSC cell proliferation compared with 1,8-Octanediol. Furthermore, osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs exposure to Citrate resulted in less inhibitory effect on alkaline phosphatase (ALP) production. Neither monomer triggered undesired pro-inflammatory responses. In combination with diffusion model analysis of monomer release from cylindrical implants, based on which the maximum concentration of monomers in contact with bone tissue was estimated to be 2.2 × 10−4 mmol/L, far lower than the critical cytotoxic concentrations as well as the 1,8-Octanediol concentration (0.4 mg/mL or 2.7 mmol/L) affecting hMSCs differentiation, we provide strong evidence for the cytocompatibility of the two monomers degraded from citrate-based composites in the orthopedic setting.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)19-27
Number of pages9
JournalBioactive Materials
Volume3
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2018

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Orthopedics
Citric Acid
Monomers
Cytotoxicity
Osteoblasts
Phosphatases
Composite materials
Cell proliferation
Fibroblasts
In Vitro Techniques
Biocompatibility
Durapatite
Toxicity
Bone
Alkaline Phosphatase
Polymers
Tissue
Cell Proliferation
Bone and Bones
Research

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biotechnology
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering

Cite this

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title = "In vitro cytocompatibility evaluation of poly(octamethylene citrate) monomers toward their use in orthopedic regenerative engineering",
abstract = "Citrate based polymer poly(octamethylene citrate) (POC) has shown promise when formulated into composite material containing up to 65 wt{\%} hydroxylapatite (HA) for orthopedic applications. Despite significant research into POC, insufficient information about the biocompatibility of the monomers 1,8-Octanediol and Citrate used in its synthesis is available. Herein, we investigated the acute cytotoxicity, immune response, and long-term functionality of both monomers. Our results showed a cell-type dependent cytotoxicity of the two monomers: 1,8-Octanediol induced less acute toxicity to 3T3 fibroblasts than Citrate while presenting comparable cytotoxicity to MG63 osteoblast-like cells; however, Citrate demonstrated enhanced compatibility with hMSCs compared to 1,8-Octanediol. The critical cytotoxic concentration values EC30 and EC50, standard for comparing cytotoxicity of chemicals, were also provided. Additionally, Citrate showed slower and less inhibitory effects on long-term hMSC cell proliferation compared with 1,8-Octanediol. Furthermore, osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs exposure to Citrate resulted in less inhibitory effect on alkaline phosphatase (ALP) production. Neither monomer triggered undesired pro-inflammatory responses. In combination with diffusion model analysis of monomer release from cylindrical implants, based on which the maximum concentration of monomers in contact with bone tissue was estimated to be 2.2 × 10−4 mmol/L, far lower than the critical cytotoxic concentrations as well as the 1,8-Octanediol concentration (0.4 mg/mL or 2.7 mmol/L) affecting hMSCs differentiation, we provide strong evidence for the cytocompatibility of the two monomers degraded from citrate-based composites in the orthopedic setting.",
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In vitro cytocompatibility evaluation of poly(octamethylene citrate) monomers toward their use in orthopedic regenerative engineering. / Ma, Chuying; Gerhard, Ethan; Lin, Qiaoling; Xia, Silun; Armstrong, April; Yang, Jian.

In: Bioactive Materials, Vol. 3, No. 1, 01.03.2018, p. 19-27.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - In vitro cytocompatibility evaluation of poly(octamethylene citrate) monomers toward their use in orthopedic regenerative engineering

AU - Ma, Chuying

AU - Gerhard, Ethan

AU - Lin, Qiaoling

AU - Xia, Silun

AU - Armstrong, April

AU - Yang, Jian

PY - 2018/3/1

Y1 - 2018/3/1

N2 - Citrate based polymer poly(octamethylene citrate) (POC) has shown promise when formulated into composite material containing up to 65 wt% hydroxylapatite (HA) for orthopedic applications. Despite significant research into POC, insufficient information about the biocompatibility of the monomers 1,8-Octanediol and Citrate used in its synthesis is available. Herein, we investigated the acute cytotoxicity, immune response, and long-term functionality of both monomers. Our results showed a cell-type dependent cytotoxicity of the two monomers: 1,8-Octanediol induced less acute toxicity to 3T3 fibroblasts than Citrate while presenting comparable cytotoxicity to MG63 osteoblast-like cells; however, Citrate demonstrated enhanced compatibility with hMSCs compared to 1,8-Octanediol. The critical cytotoxic concentration values EC30 and EC50, standard for comparing cytotoxicity of chemicals, were also provided. Additionally, Citrate showed slower and less inhibitory effects on long-term hMSC cell proliferation compared with 1,8-Octanediol. Furthermore, osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs exposure to Citrate resulted in less inhibitory effect on alkaline phosphatase (ALP) production. Neither monomer triggered undesired pro-inflammatory responses. In combination with diffusion model analysis of monomer release from cylindrical implants, based on which the maximum concentration of monomers in contact with bone tissue was estimated to be 2.2 × 10−4 mmol/L, far lower than the critical cytotoxic concentrations as well as the 1,8-Octanediol concentration (0.4 mg/mL or 2.7 mmol/L) affecting hMSCs differentiation, we provide strong evidence for the cytocompatibility of the two monomers degraded from citrate-based composites in the orthopedic setting.

AB - Citrate based polymer poly(octamethylene citrate) (POC) has shown promise when formulated into composite material containing up to 65 wt% hydroxylapatite (HA) for orthopedic applications. Despite significant research into POC, insufficient information about the biocompatibility of the monomers 1,8-Octanediol and Citrate used in its synthesis is available. Herein, we investigated the acute cytotoxicity, immune response, and long-term functionality of both monomers. Our results showed a cell-type dependent cytotoxicity of the two monomers: 1,8-Octanediol induced less acute toxicity to 3T3 fibroblasts than Citrate while presenting comparable cytotoxicity to MG63 osteoblast-like cells; however, Citrate demonstrated enhanced compatibility with hMSCs compared to 1,8-Octanediol. The critical cytotoxic concentration values EC30 and EC50, standard for comparing cytotoxicity of chemicals, were also provided. Additionally, Citrate showed slower and less inhibitory effects on long-term hMSC cell proliferation compared with 1,8-Octanediol. Furthermore, osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs exposure to Citrate resulted in less inhibitory effect on alkaline phosphatase (ALP) production. Neither monomer triggered undesired pro-inflammatory responses. In combination with diffusion model analysis of monomer release from cylindrical implants, based on which the maximum concentration of monomers in contact with bone tissue was estimated to be 2.2 × 10−4 mmol/L, far lower than the critical cytotoxic concentrations as well as the 1,8-Octanediol concentration (0.4 mg/mL or 2.7 mmol/L) affecting hMSCs differentiation, we provide strong evidence for the cytocompatibility of the two monomers degraded from citrate-based composites in the orthopedic setting.

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