The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR; NR1I3) is a nuclear receptor orchestrating complex roles in cell and systems biology. Species differences in CAR's effector pathways remain poorly understood, including its role in regulating liver tumor promotion. We developed transgenic mouse models to assess genome-wide binding of mouse and human CAR, following receptor activation in liver with direct ligands and with phenobarbital, an indirect CAR activator. Genomic interaction profiles were integrated with transcriptional and biological pathway analyses. Newly identified CAR target genes included Gdf15 and Foxo3, important regulators of the carcinogenic process. Approximately 1000 genes exhibited differential binding interactions between mouse and human CAR, including the proto-oncogenes, Myc and Ikbke, which demonstrated preferential binding by mouse CAR as well as mouse CAR-selective transcriptional enhancement. The ChIP-exo analyses also identified distinct binding motifs for the respective mouse and human receptors. Together, the results provide new insights into the important roles that CAR contributes as a key modulator of numerous signaling pathways in mammalian organisms, presenting a genomic context that specifies species variation in biological processes under CAR's control, including liver cell proliferation and tumor promotion.
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