Inactivation of dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold from carpet

Kee Hean Ong, Roger D. Lewis, Anupma Dixit, Maureen Macdonald, Mingan Yang, Zhengmin Qian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Carpet is known to be a reservoir for biological contaminants, such as dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold, if it is not kept clean. The accumulation of these contaminants in carpet might trigger allergies or asthma symptoms in both children and adults. The purpose of this study is to compare methods for removal of dust mites, dust mite allergens, and mold from carpet. Carpets were artificially worn to simulate 1 to 2 years of wear in a four-person household. The worn carpets were inoculated together with a common indoor mold (Cladosporium species) and house dust mites and incubated for 6 weeks to allow time for dust mite growth on the carpet. The carpets were randomly assigned to one of the four treatment groups. Available treatment regimens for controlling carpet contaminants were evaluated through a literature review and experimentation. Four moderately low-hazard, nondestructive methods were selected as treatments: vacuuming, steam-vapor, Neem oil (a natural tree extract), and benzalkonium chloride (a quaternary ammonium compound). Steam vapor treatment demonstrated the greatest dust mite population reduction (p < 0.05) when compared to other methods. The two physical methods, steam vapor and vacuuming, have no statistically significant efficacy in inactivating dust mite allergens (p = 0.084), but have higher efficacy when compared to the chemical method on dust mite allergens (p = 0.002). There is no statistically significant difference in the efficacy for reducing mold in carpet (p > 0.05) for both physical and chemical methods. The steam-vapor treatment effectively killed dust mites and denatured dust mite allergen in the laboratory environment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)519-527
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Volume11
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 3 2014

Fingerprint

Mites
Dust
Allergens
Fungi
Steam
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
Benzalkonium Compounds
Cladosporium
Therapeutics
Pyroglyphidae
Hypersensitivity
Asthma
Growth
Population

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Ong, Kee Hean ; Lewis, Roger D. ; Dixit, Anupma ; Macdonald, Maureen ; Yang, Mingan ; Qian, Zhengmin. / Inactivation of dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold from carpet. In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. 2014 ; Vol. 11, No. 8. pp. 519-527.
@article{f5c3541216ce4efc897ae89db75a5632,
title = "Inactivation of dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold from carpet",
abstract = "Carpet is known to be a reservoir for biological contaminants, such as dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold, if it is not kept clean. The accumulation of these contaminants in carpet might trigger allergies or asthma symptoms in both children and adults. The purpose of this study is to compare methods for removal of dust mites, dust mite allergens, and mold from carpet. Carpets were artificially worn to simulate 1 to 2 years of wear in a four-person household. The worn carpets were inoculated together with a common indoor mold (Cladosporium species) and house dust mites and incubated for 6 weeks to allow time for dust mite growth on the carpet. The carpets were randomly assigned to one of the four treatment groups. Available treatment regimens for controlling carpet contaminants were evaluated through a literature review and experimentation. Four moderately low-hazard, nondestructive methods were selected as treatments: vacuuming, steam-vapor, Neem oil (a natural tree extract), and benzalkonium chloride (a quaternary ammonium compound). Steam vapor treatment demonstrated the greatest dust mite population reduction (p < 0.05) when compared to other methods. The two physical methods, steam vapor and vacuuming, have no statistically significant efficacy in inactivating dust mite allergens (p = 0.084), but have higher efficacy when compared to the chemical method on dust mite allergens (p = 0.002). There is no statistically significant difference in the efficacy for reducing mold in carpet (p > 0.05) for both physical and chemical methods. The steam-vapor treatment effectively killed dust mites and denatured dust mite allergen in the laboratory environment.",
author = "Ong, {Kee Hean} and Lewis, {Roger D.} and Anupma Dixit and Maureen Macdonald and Mingan Yang and Zhengmin Qian",
year = "2014",
month = "8",
day = "3",
doi = "10.1080/15459624.2014.880787",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "11",
pages = "519--527",
journal = "Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene",
issn = "1545-9624",
publisher = "Taylor and Francis Ltd.",
number = "8",

}

Inactivation of dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold from carpet. / Ong, Kee Hean; Lewis, Roger D.; Dixit, Anupma; Macdonald, Maureen; Yang, Mingan; Qian, Zhengmin.

In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Vol. 11, No. 8, 03.08.2014, p. 519-527.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Inactivation of dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold from carpet

AU - Ong, Kee Hean

AU - Lewis, Roger D.

AU - Dixit, Anupma

AU - Macdonald, Maureen

AU - Yang, Mingan

AU - Qian, Zhengmin

PY - 2014/8/3

Y1 - 2014/8/3

N2 - Carpet is known to be a reservoir for biological contaminants, such as dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold, if it is not kept clean. The accumulation of these contaminants in carpet might trigger allergies or asthma symptoms in both children and adults. The purpose of this study is to compare methods for removal of dust mites, dust mite allergens, and mold from carpet. Carpets were artificially worn to simulate 1 to 2 years of wear in a four-person household. The worn carpets were inoculated together with a common indoor mold (Cladosporium species) and house dust mites and incubated for 6 weeks to allow time for dust mite growth on the carpet. The carpets were randomly assigned to one of the four treatment groups. Available treatment regimens for controlling carpet contaminants were evaluated through a literature review and experimentation. Four moderately low-hazard, nondestructive methods were selected as treatments: vacuuming, steam-vapor, Neem oil (a natural tree extract), and benzalkonium chloride (a quaternary ammonium compound). Steam vapor treatment demonstrated the greatest dust mite population reduction (p < 0.05) when compared to other methods. The two physical methods, steam vapor and vacuuming, have no statistically significant efficacy in inactivating dust mite allergens (p = 0.084), but have higher efficacy when compared to the chemical method on dust mite allergens (p = 0.002). There is no statistically significant difference in the efficacy for reducing mold in carpet (p > 0.05) for both physical and chemical methods. The steam-vapor treatment effectively killed dust mites and denatured dust mite allergen in the laboratory environment.

AB - Carpet is known to be a reservoir for biological contaminants, such as dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold, if it is not kept clean. The accumulation of these contaminants in carpet might trigger allergies or asthma symptoms in both children and adults. The purpose of this study is to compare methods for removal of dust mites, dust mite allergens, and mold from carpet. Carpets were artificially worn to simulate 1 to 2 years of wear in a four-person household. The worn carpets were inoculated together with a common indoor mold (Cladosporium species) and house dust mites and incubated for 6 weeks to allow time for dust mite growth on the carpet. The carpets were randomly assigned to one of the four treatment groups. Available treatment regimens for controlling carpet contaminants were evaluated through a literature review and experimentation. Four moderately low-hazard, nondestructive methods were selected as treatments: vacuuming, steam-vapor, Neem oil (a natural tree extract), and benzalkonium chloride (a quaternary ammonium compound). Steam vapor treatment demonstrated the greatest dust mite population reduction (p < 0.05) when compared to other methods. The two physical methods, steam vapor and vacuuming, have no statistically significant efficacy in inactivating dust mite allergens (p = 0.084), but have higher efficacy when compared to the chemical method on dust mite allergens (p = 0.002). There is no statistically significant difference in the efficacy for reducing mold in carpet (p > 0.05) for both physical and chemical methods. The steam-vapor treatment effectively killed dust mites and denatured dust mite allergen in the laboratory environment.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84903518090&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84903518090&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1080/15459624.2014.880787

DO - 10.1080/15459624.2014.880787

M3 - Article

C2 - 24467247

AN - SCOPUS:84903518090

VL - 11

SP - 519

EP - 527

JO - Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene

JF - Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene

SN - 1545-9624

IS - 8

ER -