The study investigated the efficacy of two GRAS-status phytochemicals, mega-resveratrol (RV) and naringenin (NG) to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) in apple cider. A five-strain mixture of EHEC (∼7 log CFU/ml) was inoculated into cider, followed by the addition of RV (8.7 mM and 13.0 mM) or NG (7.3 mM and 11.0 mM). The cider samples were stored at 4 °C for 14 days and EHEC was enumerated on days 0,1,5,7 and 14. The deleterious effects of RV and NG on EHEC cells were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and RT-qPCR was done to determine the effect of phytochemicals on three known acid resistance (AR) systems of EHEC. NG was more effective than RV and reduced EHEC counts by ∼4.5 log CFU/ml by day 14, whereas RV reduced counts by ∼2.5 log CFU/ml compared to controls (P < 0.05). SEM showed that RV and NG resulted in the destruction of EHEC cells, and surviving bacteria appeared ‘lemon shaped’. RT-qPCR results revealed that RV and NG downregulated the transcription of AR associated genes in EHEC (P < 0.05). Results suggest the potential use of RV and NG as natural antimicrobial additives to enhance the microbiological safety of apple cider. However, sensory analysis studies are warranted.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Food Science