Increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in rat lung tumors induced by the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-4-(3-pyridyl)-1- butanone: The impact of a high-fat diet

Karam El-Bayoumy, Michael Iatropoulos, Shantu Amin, Dietrich Hoffmann, Ernst L. Wynder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

68 Scopus citations

Abstract

Aberrant or excessive expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many disease processes, including carcinogenesis. COX-2 expression was immunohistochemically examined in archival samples (D. Hoffmann et al., Cancer Res., 53: 2758-2761, 1993) of lung neoplasms (adenomas, adenocarcinomas, and adenosquamous carcinomas) induced by 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in male F344 rats that had been fed either a semipurified AIN-76A diet with high-fat (HF; 23.5% corn oil) or low-fat (LF; 5% corn oil) content. The intensity and extent of COX-2 positivity was graded from 0 (undetectable or negligible expression) to grades 1 (<30% expression), 2 (30-60% expression), 3 (60-90% expression), and 4 (>90% expression). The scoring criteria were similar to those used with specimens from human lung cancers (T. Hida et al., Cancer Res., 58: 3761-3764, 1998). In group 1 (NNK plus HF diet), adenomas, adenocarcinomas, and adenosquamous carcinomas were of mean grades 2, 3, and 4, respectively; in group 2 (NNK plus LF diet), the corresponding mean grades were 1, 1, and 3. Although control rats, given HF (group 3) or LF (group 4) diets but no NNK, developed spontaneous lung tumors, the expression of COX-2 was either negligible (one adenoma of grade 0 in group 3) or of a very low grade (one adenocarcinoma of grade 1 in group 4). In addition, the latency of the tumors in the peripheral lung in assays with NNK is significantly shorter in rats maintained on the HF diet than in those on LF diet. COX-2 expression was not evident in normal lung tissues. We report here for the first time that NNK induces increasingly higher levels of COX-2 expression with progressive stages of lung tumorigenesis when rats are fed the HF diet. The increase in COX-2 expression may be associated with the development of lung tumors induced by NNK. This well-defined animal model is valuable for studying modulation of COX-2 expression in lung carcinogenesis by various factors, including dietary components.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1400-1403
Number of pages4
JournalCancer Research
Volume59
Issue number7
StatePublished - Apr 1 1999

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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