Independent of Cirrhosis, Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk Is Increased with Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome

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Abstract

Background Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary liver malignancy, commonly a sequelae of hepatitis C infection, but can complicate cirrhosis of any cause. Whether metabolic syndrome and its components, type II diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma independent of cirrhosis is unknown. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the MarketScan insurance claims database from 2008-2012. Individuals with hepatocellular carcinoma aged 19-64 years and age and sex-matched controls were included. Multivariate analysis of hepatocellular carcinoma risk factors was performed. Results Hepatitis C (odds ratio [OR] 2.102) was the largest risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma. Other independent risk factors were type II diabetes (OR 1.353) and hypertension (OR 1.229). Hyperlipidemia was protective against hepatocellular carcinoma (OR 0.885). The largest risk increase occurred with hypertension with type II diabetes and hepatitis C (OR 4.580), although hypertension and type II diabetes without hepatitis C still incurred additional risk (OR 3.399). Type II diabetes and hyperlipidemia had a similar risk if hepatitis C was present (OR 2.319) or not (OR 2.395). Metformin (OR 0.706) and cholesterol medications (OR 0.645) were protective in diabetics. Insulin (OR 1.640) increased the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma compared with the general type II diabetes population. Conclusion In the absence of cirrhosis, type II diabetes and hypertension were independent risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma. Hyperlipidemia and medical management of type II diabetes with metformin and cholesterol medication appeared to reduce the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. In contrast, insulin was associated with a higher risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)746.e1-746.e7
JournalAmerican Journal of Medicine
Volume130
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2017

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Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Fibrosis
Odds Ratio
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Hepatitis C
Hyperlipidemias
Hypertension
Metformin
Cholesterol
Insulin
Insurance
Cohort Studies
Multivariate Analysis
Retrospective Studies
Databases
Liver
Incidence

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

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title = "Independent of Cirrhosis, Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk Is Increased with Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome",
abstract = "Background Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary liver malignancy, commonly a sequelae of hepatitis C infection, but can complicate cirrhosis of any cause. Whether metabolic syndrome and its components, type II diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma independent of cirrhosis is unknown. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the MarketScan insurance claims database from 2008-2012. Individuals with hepatocellular carcinoma aged 19-64 years and age and sex-matched controls were included. Multivariate analysis of hepatocellular carcinoma risk factors was performed. Results Hepatitis C (odds ratio [OR] 2.102) was the largest risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma. Other independent risk factors were type II diabetes (OR 1.353) and hypertension (OR 1.229). Hyperlipidemia was protective against hepatocellular carcinoma (OR 0.885). The largest risk increase occurred with hypertension with type II diabetes and hepatitis C (OR 4.580), although hypertension and type II diabetes without hepatitis C still incurred additional risk (OR 3.399). Type II diabetes and hyperlipidemia had a similar risk if hepatitis C was present (OR 2.319) or not (OR 2.395). Metformin (OR 0.706) and cholesterol medications (OR 0.645) were protective in diabetics. Insulin (OR 1.640) increased the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma compared with the general type II diabetes population. Conclusion In the absence of cirrhosis, type II diabetes and hypertension were independent risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma. Hyperlipidemia and medical management of type II diabetes with metformin and cholesterol medication appeared to reduce the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. In contrast, insulin was associated with a higher risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.",
author = "Kasmari, {Allison J.} and Amy Welch and Guodong Liu and Douglas Leslie and Thomas McGarrity and {Riley III}, Thomas",
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Independent of Cirrhosis, Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk Is Increased with Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome. / Kasmari, Allison J.; Welch, Amy; Liu, Guodong; Leslie, Douglas; McGarrity, Thomas; Riley III, Thomas.

In: American Journal of Medicine, Vol. 130, No. 6, 01.06.2017, p. 746.e1-746.e7.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Independent of Cirrhosis, Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk Is Increased with Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome

AU - Kasmari, Allison J.

AU - Welch, Amy

AU - Liu, Guodong

AU - Leslie, Douglas

AU - McGarrity, Thomas

AU - Riley III, Thomas

PY - 2017/6/1

Y1 - 2017/6/1

N2 - Background Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary liver malignancy, commonly a sequelae of hepatitis C infection, but can complicate cirrhosis of any cause. Whether metabolic syndrome and its components, type II diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma independent of cirrhosis is unknown. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the MarketScan insurance claims database from 2008-2012. Individuals with hepatocellular carcinoma aged 19-64 years and age and sex-matched controls were included. Multivariate analysis of hepatocellular carcinoma risk factors was performed. Results Hepatitis C (odds ratio [OR] 2.102) was the largest risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma. Other independent risk factors were type II diabetes (OR 1.353) and hypertension (OR 1.229). Hyperlipidemia was protective against hepatocellular carcinoma (OR 0.885). The largest risk increase occurred with hypertension with type II diabetes and hepatitis C (OR 4.580), although hypertension and type II diabetes without hepatitis C still incurred additional risk (OR 3.399). Type II diabetes and hyperlipidemia had a similar risk if hepatitis C was present (OR 2.319) or not (OR 2.395). Metformin (OR 0.706) and cholesterol medications (OR 0.645) were protective in diabetics. Insulin (OR 1.640) increased the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma compared with the general type II diabetes population. Conclusion In the absence of cirrhosis, type II diabetes and hypertension were independent risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma. Hyperlipidemia and medical management of type II diabetes with metformin and cholesterol medication appeared to reduce the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. In contrast, insulin was associated with a higher risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.

AB - Background Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary liver malignancy, commonly a sequelae of hepatitis C infection, but can complicate cirrhosis of any cause. Whether metabolic syndrome and its components, type II diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma independent of cirrhosis is unknown. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the MarketScan insurance claims database from 2008-2012. Individuals with hepatocellular carcinoma aged 19-64 years and age and sex-matched controls were included. Multivariate analysis of hepatocellular carcinoma risk factors was performed. Results Hepatitis C (odds ratio [OR] 2.102) was the largest risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma. Other independent risk factors were type II diabetes (OR 1.353) and hypertension (OR 1.229). Hyperlipidemia was protective against hepatocellular carcinoma (OR 0.885). The largest risk increase occurred with hypertension with type II diabetes and hepatitis C (OR 4.580), although hypertension and type II diabetes without hepatitis C still incurred additional risk (OR 3.399). Type II diabetes and hyperlipidemia had a similar risk if hepatitis C was present (OR 2.319) or not (OR 2.395). Metformin (OR 0.706) and cholesterol medications (OR 0.645) were protective in diabetics. Insulin (OR 1.640) increased the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma compared with the general type II diabetes population. Conclusion In the absence of cirrhosis, type II diabetes and hypertension were independent risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma. Hyperlipidemia and medical management of type II diabetes with metformin and cholesterol medication appeared to reduce the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. In contrast, insulin was associated with a higher risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.

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DO - 10.1016/j.amjmed.2016.12.029

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JF - American Journal of Medicine

SN - 0002-9343

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