Induction of lung glutathione and glutamylcysteine ligase by 1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)selenocyanate and its glutathione conjugate: Role of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2

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Abstract

The synthetic organoselenium agent 1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)selenocyanate (p-XSC) and its glutathione (GSH) conjugate (p-XSeSG) are potent chemopreventive agents in several preclinical models. p-XSC is also an effective inducer of GSH in mouse lung. Our objectives were to test the hypothesis that GSH induction by p-XSC occurs through upregulation of the rate-limiting GSH biosynthetic enzyme glutamylcysteine ligase (GCL), through activation of antioxidant response elements (AREs) in GCL genes via activation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). p-XSC feeding (10 ppm Se) increased GSH (230%) and upregulated the catalytic subunit of GCL (GCLc) (55%), extracellular-related kinase (220%), and nuclear Nrf2 (610%) in lung but not liver after 14 days in the rat (P<0.05). Similarly, p-XSeSG feeding (10 ppm) induced lung GCLc (88%) and GSH (200%) (P<0.05), whereas the naturally occurring selenomethionine had no effect. Both p-XSC and p-XSeSG activated a luciferase reporter in HepG2 ARE-reporter cells up to threefold for p-XSC and greater than or equal to fivefold for p-XSeSG. Luciferase activation by p-XSeSG was associated with enhanced levels of GSH, GCLc, and nuclear Nrf2, which were significantly reduced by co-incubation with short interfering RNA targeting Nrf2. The dependence of GCL induction on Nrf2 was confirmed in Nrf2-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts, in which p-XSeSG induced GCL subunits in wild-type but not in Nrf2-deficient cells (P<0.05). These results indicate that p-XSC may act through the Nrf2 pathway in vivo and that p-XSeSG is the putative metabolite responsible for such activation, thus offering p-XSeSG as a less toxic, yet highly efficacious, inducer of GSH.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2064-2071
Number of pages8
JournalFree Radical Biology and Medicine
Volume52
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - May 15 2012

Fingerprint

Ligases
Glutathione
Lung
Chemical activation
Antioxidant Response Elements
Luciferases
Selenomethionine
Poisons
Fibroblasts
Metabolites
Liver
Small Interfering RNA
Transcriptional Activation
Rats
Catalytic Domain
Phosphotransferases
Up-Regulation
Genes
glutathione conjugate 1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)selenocyanate
Enzymes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

@article{4c9a9a48b1164bb6ad4d270b1a8dff11,
title = "Induction of lung glutathione and glutamylcysteine ligase by 1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)selenocyanate and its glutathione conjugate: Role of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2",
abstract = "The synthetic organoselenium agent 1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)selenocyanate (p-XSC) and its glutathione (GSH) conjugate (p-XSeSG) are potent chemopreventive agents in several preclinical models. p-XSC is also an effective inducer of GSH in mouse lung. Our objectives were to test the hypothesis that GSH induction by p-XSC occurs through upregulation of the rate-limiting GSH biosynthetic enzyme glutamylcysteine ligase (GCL), through activation of antioxidant response elements (AREs) in GCL genes via activation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). p-XSC feeding (10 ppm Se) increased GSH (230{\%}) and upregulated the catalytic subunit of GCL (GCLc) (55{\%}), extracellular-related kinase (220{\%}), and nuclear Nrf2 (610{\%}) in lung but not liver after 14 days in the rat (P<0.05). Similarly, p-XSeSG feeding (10 ppm) induced lung GCLc (88{\%}) and GSH (200{\%}) (P<0.05), whereas the naturally occurring selenomethionine had no effect. Both p-XSC and p-XSeSG activated a luciferase reporter in HepG2 ARE-reporter cells up to threefold for p-XSC and greater than or equal to fivefold for p-XSeSG. Luciferase activation by p-XSeSG was associated with enhanced levels of GSH, GCLc, and nuclear Nrf2, which were significantly reduced by co-incubation with short interfering RNA targeting Nrf2. The dependence of GCL induction on Nrf2 was confirmed in Nrf2-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts, in which p-XSeSG induced GCL subunits in wild-type but not in Nrf2-deficient cells (P<0.05). These results indicate that p-XSC may act through the Nrf2 pathway in vivo and that p-XSeSG is the putative metabolite responsible for such activation, thus offering p-XSeSG as a less toxic, yet highly efficacious, inducer of GSH.",
author = "Emmert, {Sans W.} and Karam El-Bayoumy and Arunangshu Das and Yuan-Wan Sun and Shantu Amin and Dhimant Desai and Cesar Aliaga and John Richie",
year = "2012",
month = "5",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.03.018",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "52",
pages = "2064--2071",
journal = "Free Radical Biology and Medicine",
issn = "0891-5849",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Induction of lung glutathione and glutamylcysteine ligase by 1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)selenocyanate and its glutathione conjugate

T2 - Role of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2

AU - Emmert, Sans W.

AU - El-Bayoumy, Karam

AU - Das, Arunangshu

AU - Sun, Yuan-Wan

AU - Amin, Shantu

AU - Desai, Dhimant

AU - Aliaga, Cesar

AU - Richie, John

PY - 2012/5/15

Y1 - 2012/5/15

N2 - The synthetic organoselenium agent 1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)selenocyanate (p-XSC) and its glutathione (GSH) conjugate (p-XSeSG) are potent chemopreventive agents in several preclinical models. p-XSC is also an effective inducer of GSH in mouse lung. Our objectives were to test the hypothesis that GSH induction by p-XSC occurs through upregulation of the rate-limiting GSH biosynthetic enzyme glutamylcysteine ligase (GCL), through activation of antioxidant response elements (AREs) in GCL genes via activation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). p-XSC feeding (10 ppm Se) increased GSH (230%) and upregulated the catalytic subunit of GCL (GCLc) (55%), extracellular-related kinase (220%), and nuclear Nrf2 (610%) in lung but not liver after 14 days in the rat (P<0.05). Similarly, p-XSeSG feeding (10 ppm) induced lung GCLc (88%) and GSH (200%) (P<0.05), whereas the naturally occurring selenomethionine had no effect. Both p-XSC and p-XSeSG activated a luciferase reporter in HepG2 ARE-reporter cells up to threefold for p-XSC and greater than or equal to fivefold for p-XSeSG. Luciferase activation by p-XSeSG was associated with enhanced levels of GSH, GCLc, and nuclear Nrf2, which were significantly reduced by co-incubation with short interfering RNA targeting Nrf2. The dependence of GCL induction on Nrf2 was confirmed in Nrf2-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts, in which p-XSeSG induced GCL subunits in wild-type but not in Nrf2-deficient cells (P<0.05). These results indicate that p-XSC may act through the Nrf2 pathway in vivo and that p-XSeSG is the putative metabolite responsible for such activation, thus offering p-XSeSG as a less toxic, yet highly efficacious, inducer of GSH.

AB - The synthetic organoselenium agent 1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)selenocyanate (p-XSC) and its glutathione (GSH) conjugate (p-XSeSG) are potent chemopreventive agents in several preclinical models. p-XSC is also an effective inducer of GSH in mouse lung. Our objectives were to test the hypothesis that GSH induction by p-XSC occurs through upregulation of the rate-limiting GSH biosynthetic enzyme glutamylcysteine ligase (GCL), through activation of antioxidant response elements (AREs) in GCL genes via activation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). p-XSC feeding (10 ppm Se) increased GSH (230%) and upregulated the catalytic subunit of GCL (GCLc) (55%), extracellular-related kinase (220%), and nuclear Nrf2 (610%) in lung but not liver after 14 days in the rat (P<0.05). Similarly, p-XSeSG feeding (10 ppm) induced lung GCLc (88%) and GSH (200%) (P<0.05), whereas the naturally occurring selenomethionine had no effect. Both p-XSC and p-XSeSG activated a luciferase reporter in HepG2 ARE-reporter cells up to threefold for p-XSC and greater than or equal to fivefold for p-XSeSG. Luciferase activation by p-XSeSG was associated with enhanced levels of GSH, GCLc, and nuclear Nrf2, which were significantly reduced by co-incubation with short interfering RNA targeting Nrf2. The dependence of GCL induction on Nrf2 was confirmed in Nrf2-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts, in which p-XSeSG induced GCL subunits in wild-type but not in Nrf2-deficient cells (P<0.05). These results indicate that p-XSC may act through the Nrf2 pathway in vivo and that p-XSeSG is the putative metabolite responsible for such activation, thus offering p-XSeSG as a less toxic, yet highly efficacious, inducer of GSH.

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