Inequity in Hindu-Muslim riots: A test of two biases

R. Barry Ruback, Purnima Singh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


During the past 50 years, substantially more Muslims than Hindus have died in riots in India. This study examined and found support for 2 possible individual-level reasons that are consistent with this disproportionate number of deaths. First, Hindus, compared to Muslims, considered historical incidents to be more important for contemporary Hindu-Muslim relations. Second, Hindus showed an ultimate group bias in that they generally valued Hindu lives more than Muslim lives, whereas Muslims showed no difference in the valuation of Hindu and Muslim lives. Together, these results are consistent with an equity notion that Hindus consider as relevant input factors both historical incidents and perceptions that in-group members' lives are more valuable than are out-group members' lives.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)982-998
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Applied Social Psychology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2008

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Social Psychology


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