We purified and sequenced infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), a small DNA virus of shrimp, from wild Penaeus stylirostris. The virion has a buoyant density of 1.45 as determined by cesium chloride gradient. Analysis of 3873 nucleotides of the viral genome revealed three large open reading frames (ORFs) and parts of the noncoding termini of the viral genome. The left, mid, and right ORFs on the complementary (plus) strand have potential coding capacities of 666 amino acids (aa) (75.77 kDa), 363 aa (42.11 kDa), and 329 aa (37.48 kDa), respectively. The overall genomic organization is similar to that of the mosquito brevidensoviruses. The left ORF most likely encodes the major nonstructural (NS) protein (NS-1) since it contains conserved replication initiator motifs and NTP-binding and helicase domains similar to those in NS-1 from all other parvoviruses. The IHHNV putative NS-1 shares the highest aa sequence homology with the NS-1 of mosquito brevidensoviruses, Aedes densovirus and Aedes albopictus parvovirus. A search for putative splicing sites revealed that the N-terminal region of NS-1 is very likely located in a small ORF upstream of the left ORF. The right ORF is presumed to encode structural polypeptides (VPs), as in other parvoviruses. Two putative promoters, located upstream of the left and right ORFs, are presumed to regulate expression of NS and VP genes, respectively. Thus, IHHNV is closely related to densoviruses of the genus Brevidensovirus in the family Parvoviridae, and we therefore propose to rename this virus Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV). (C) 2000 Academic Press.
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