Inferences on mass composition and tests of hadronic interactions from 0.3 to 100 EeV using the water-Cherenkov detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory

(Pierre Auger Collaboration)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

18 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We present a new method for probing the hadronic interaction models at ultrahigh energy and extracting details about mass composition. This is done using the time profiles of the signals recorded with the water-Cherenkov detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The profiles arise from a mix of the muon and electromagnetic components of air showers. Using the risetimes of the recorded signals, we define a new parameter, which we use to compare our observations with predictions from simulations. We find, first, inconsistencies between our data and predictions over a greater energy range and with substantially more events than in previous studies. Second, by calibrating the new parameter with fluorescence measurements from observations made at the Auger Observatory, we can infer the depth of shower maximum Xmax for a sample of over 81,000 events extending from 0.3 to over 100 EeV. Above 30 EeV, the sample is nearly 14 times larger than what is currently available from fluorescence measurements and extending the covered energy range by half a decade. The energy dependence of ?Xmaxcopyright is compared to simulations and interpreted in terms of the mean of the logarithmic mass. We find good agreement with previous work and extend the measurement of the mean depth of shower maximum to greater energies than before, reducing significantly the statistical uncertainty associated with the inferences about mass composition.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number122003
JournalPhysical Review D
Volume96
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 15 2017

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inference
observatories
detectors
water
showers
interactions
energy
fluorescence
cosmic ray showers
calibrating
profiles
predictions
muons
simulation
electromagnetism

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

Cite this

@article{be9b740528844d249bf705da28aeb663,
title = "Inferences on mass composition and tests of hadronic interactions from 0.3 to 100 EeV using the water-Cherenkov detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory",
abstract = "We present a new method for probing the hadronic interaction models at ultrahigh energy and extracting details about mass composition. This is done using the time profiles of the signals recorded with the water-Cherenkov detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The profiles arise from a mix of the muon and electromagnetic components of air showers. Using the risetimes of the recorded signals, we define a new parameter, which we use to compare our observations with predictions from simulations. We find, first, inconsistencies between our data and predictions over a greater energy range and with substantially more events than in previous studies. Second, by calibrating the new parameter with fluorescence measurements from observations made at the Auger Observatory, we can infer the depth of shower maximum Xmax for a sample of over 81,000 events extending from 0.3 to over 100 EeV. Above 30 EeV, the sample is nearly 14 times larger than what is currently available from fluorescence measurements and extending the covered energy range by half a decade. The energy dependence of ?Xmaxcopyright is compared to simulations and interpreted in terms of the mean of the logarithmic mass. We find good agreement with previous work and extend the measurement of the mean depth of shower maximum to greater energies than before, reducing significantly the statistical uncertainty associated with the inferences about mass composition.",
author = "{(Pierre Auger Collaboration)} and A. Aab and P. Abreu and M. Aglietta and {Al Samarai}, I. and Albuquerque, {I. F.M.} and I. Allekotte and A. Almela and {Alvarez Castillo}, J. and J. Alvarez-Mu{\~n}iz and Anastasi, {G. A.} and L. Anchordoqui and B. Andrada and S. Andringa and C. Aramo and F. Arqueros and N. Arsene and H. Asorey and P. Assis and J. Aublin and G. Avila and Badescu, {A. M.} and A. Balaceanu and F. Barbato and {Barreira Luz}, {R. J.} and Beatty, {J. J.} and Becker, {K. H.} and Bellido, {J. A.} and C. Berat and Bertaina, {M. E.} and X. Bertou and Biermann, {P. L.} and J. Biteau and Blaess, {S. G.} and A. Blanco and J. Blazek and C. Bleve and M. Boh{\'a}čov{\'a} and D. Boncioli and C. Bonifazi and N. Borodai and Botti, {A. M.} and J. Brack and I. Brancus and T. Bretz and A. Bridgeman and Briechle, {F. L.} and P. Buchholz and A. Bueno and Stephane Coutu and Mostafa, {Miguel Alejandro}",
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language = "English (US)",
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Inferences on mass composition and tests of hadronic interactions from 0.3 to 100 EeV using the water-Cherenkov detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory. / (Pierre Auger Collaboration).

In: Physical Review D, Vol. 96, No. 12, 122003, 15.12.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Inferences on mass composition and tests of hadronic interactions from 0.3 to 100 EeV using the water-Cherenkov detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory

AU - (Pierre Auger Collaboration)

AU - Aab, A.

AU - Abreu, P.

AU - Aglietta, M.

AU - Al Samarai, I.

AU - Albuquerque, I. F.M.

AU - Allekotte, I.

AU - Almela, A.

AU - Alvarez Castillo, J.

AU - Alvarez-Muñiz, J.

AU - Anastasi, G. A.

AU - Anchordoqui, L.

AU - Andrada, B.

AU - Andringa, S.

AU - Aramo, C.

AU - Arqueros, F.

AU - Arsene, N.

AU - Asorey, H.

AU - Assis, P.

AU - Aublin, J.

AU - Avila, G.

AU - Badescu, A. M.

AU - Balaceanu, A.

AU - Barbato, F.

AU - Barreira Luz, R. J.

AU - Beatty, J. J.

AU - Becker, K. H.

AU - Bellido, J. A.

AU - Berat, C.

AU - Bertaina, M. E.

AU - Bertou, X.

AU - Biermann, P. L.

AU - Biteau, J.

AU - Blaess, S. G.

AU - Blanco, A.

AU - Blazek, J.

AU - Bleve, C.

AU - Boháčová, M.

AU - Boncioli, D.

AU - Bonifazi, C.

AU - Borodai, N.

AU - Botti, A. M.

AU - Brack, J.

AU - Brancus, I.

AU - Bretz, T.

AU - Bridgeman, A.

AU - Briechle, F. L.

AU - Buchholz, P.

AU - Bueno, A.

AU - Coutu, Stephane

AU - Mostafa, Miguel Alejandro

PY - 2017/12/15

Y1 - 2017/12/15

N2 - We present a new method for probing the hadronic interaction models at ultrahigh energy and extracting details about mass composition. This is done using the time profiles of the signals recorded with the water-Cherenkov detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The profiles arise from a mix of the muon and electromagnetic components of air showers. Using the risetimes of the recorded signals, we define a new parameter, which we use to compare our observations with predictions from simulations. We find, first, inconsistencies between our data and predictions over a greater energy range and with substantially more events than in previous studies. Second, by calibrating the new parameter with fluorescence measurements from observations made at the Auger Observatory, we can infer the depth of shower maximum Xmax for a sample of over 81,000 events extending from 0.3 to over 100 EeV. Above 30 EeV, the sample is nearly 14 times larger than what is currently available from fluorescence measurements and extending the covered energy range by half a decade. The energy dependence of ?Xmaxcopyright is compared to simulations and interpreted in terms of the mean of the logarithmic mass. We find good agreement with previous work and extend the measurement of the mean depth of shower maximum to greater energies than before, reducing significantly the statistical uncertainty associated with the inferences about mass composition.

AB - We present a new method for probing the hadronic interaction models at ultrahigh energy and extracting details about mass composition. This is done using the time profiles of the signals recorded with the water-Cherenkov detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The profiles arise from a mix of the muon and electromagnetic components of air showers. Using the risetimes of the recorded signals, we define a new parameter, which we use to compare our observations with predictions from simulations. We find, first, inconsistencies between our data and predictions over a greater energy range and with substantially more events than in previous studies. Second, by calibrating the new parameter with fluorescence measurements from observations made at the Auger Observatory, we can infer the depth of shower maximum Xmax for a sample of over 81,000 events extending from 0.3 to over 100 EeV. Above 30 EeV, the sample is nearly 14 times larger than what is currently available from fluorescence measurements and extending the covered energy range by half a decade. The energy dependence of ?Xmaxcopyright is compared to simulations and interpreted in terms of the mean of the logarithmic mass. We find good agreement with previous work and extend the measurement of the mean depth of shower maximum to greater energies than before, reducing significantly the statistical uncertainty associated with the inferences about mass composition.

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U2 - 10.1103/PhysRevD.96.122003

DO - 10.1103/PhysRevD.96.122003

M3 - Article

VL - 96

JO - Physical Review D

JF - Physical Review D

SN - 2470-0010

IS - 12

M1 - 122003

ER -