Inflammation- and ischemia-induced shedding of venular glycocalyx

A. W. Mulivor, Herbert Herling Lipowsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

204 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Alterations in the composition of the glycocalyx of venular endothelium in postcapillary venules (rat mesentery) were explored in models of inflammation and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Lectins were covalently linked to fluorescently labeled microspheres (0.1-μm diameter) or directly labeled with FITC. Adhesion of lectins specific for glucose and galactose residues of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and other components of the endothelial glycocalyx decreased dramatically after superfusion of the mesentery with the chemoattractant N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine and during reperfusion after 60-min ischemia. These reductions were significantly attenuated by superfusion with pertussis toxin (PTX), suggesting that shedding of glycocalyx was mediated by G proteins. Adhesion of microspheres linked with antibody for syndecan-1, a major proteoglycan to which GAGs are bound, revealed increased labeling as GAGs were lost and permitted greater numbers of spheres to adhere to the protein core, which was not shed. Induction of ischemia by occluding proximal microvessels for 60 min resulted in a 40% increase in galactosaminoglycans and a 15% increase in glucosaminoglycans on the endothelium, which was not inhibited by PTX. Reperfusion of vessels led to a rapid loss of GAGs that was inhibited by pretreatment with PTX, with 40% of galactosaminoglycans and 25% of glucosaminoglycans accumulated being removed by G protein-mediated shedding and the remainder freely convected away by fluid shear. We conclude that the composition of the glycocalyx results from a balance of the rate of biosynthesis of GAGs by the endothelial cell and their shedding, which may be mediated by intracellular and/or membrane-bound proteases or lyases released or activated by G protein signaling.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Volume286
Issue number5 55-5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2004

Fingerprint

Glycocalyx
Glycosaminoglycans
Ischemia
Inflammation
Pertussis Toxin
GTP-Binding Proteins
Mesentery
Microspheres
Lectins
Reperfusion
Endothelium
Syndecan-1
N-Formylmethionine Leucyl-Phenylalanine
Intracellular Membranes
Lyases
Venules
Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate
Chemotactic Factors
Proteoglycans
Microvessels

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

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title = "Inflammation- and ischemia-induced shedding of venular glycocalyx",
abstract = "Alterations in the composition of the glycocalyx of venular endothelium in postcapillary venules (rat mesentery) were explored in models of inflammation and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Lectins were covalently linked to fluorescently labeled microspheres (0.1-μm diameter) or directly labeled with FITC. Adhesion of lectins specific for glucose and galactose residues of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and other components of the endothelial glycocalyx decreased dramatically after superfusion of the mesentery with the chemoattractant N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine and during reperfusion after 60-min ischemia. These reductions were significantly attenuated by superfusion with pertussis toxin (PTX), suggesting that shedding of glycocalyx was mediated by G proteins. Adhesion of microspheres linked with antibody for syndecan-1, a major proteoglycan to which GAGs are bound, revealed increased labeling as GAGs were lost and permitted greater numbers of spheres to adhere to the protein core, which was not shed. Induction of ischemia by occluding proximal microvessels for 60 min resulted in a 40{\%} increase in galactosaminoglycans and a 15{\%} increase in glucosaminoglycans on the endothelium, which was not inhibited by PTX. Reperfusion of vessels led to a rapid loss of GAGs that was inhibited by pretreatment with PTX, with 40{\%} of galactosaminoglycans and 25{\%} of glucosaminoglycans accumulated being removed by G protein-mediated shedding and the remainder freely convected away by fluid shear. We conclude that the composition of the glycocalyx results from a balance of the rate of biosynthesis of GAGs by the endothelial cell and their shedding, which may be mediated by intracellular and/or membrane-bound proteases or lyases released or activated by G protein signaling.",
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Inflammation- and ischemia-induced shedding of venular glycocalyx. / Mulivor, A. W.; Lipowsky, Herbert Herling.

In: American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology, Vol. 286, No. 5 55-5, 01.05.2004.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AB - Alterations in the composition of the glycocalyx of venular endothelium in postcapillary venules (rat mesentery) were explored in models of inflammation and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Lectins were covalently linked to fluorescently labeled microspheres (0.1-μm diameter) or directly labeled with FITC. Adhesion of lectins specific for glucose and galactose residues of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and other components of the endothelial glycocalyx decreased dramatically after superfusion of the mesentery with the chemoattractant N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine and during reperfusion after 60-min ischemia. These reductions were significantly attenuated by superfusion with pertussis toxin (PTX), suggesting that shedding of glycocalyx was mediated by G proteins. Adhesion of microspheres linked with antibody for syndecan-1, a major proteoglycan to which GAGs are bound, revealed increased labeling as GAGs were lost and permitted greater numbers of spheres to adhere to the protein core, which was not shed. Induction of ischemia by occluding proximal microvessels for 60 min resulted in a 40% increase in galactosaminoglycans and a 15% increase in glucosaminoglycans on the endothelium, which was not inhibited by PTX. Reperfusion of vessels led to a rapid loss of GAGs that was inhibited by pretreatment with PTX, with 40% of galactosaminoglycans and 25% of glucosaminoglycans accumulated being removed by G protein-mediated shedding and the remainder freely convected away by fluid shear. We conclude that the composition of the glycocalyx results from a balance of the rate of biosynthesis of GAGs by the endothelial cell and their shedding, which may be mediated by intracellular and/or membrane-bound proteases or lyases released or activated by G protein signaling.

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