Expression of different cytokines and growth factors after myocardial injury has been associated with fibroplasia and dilatation versus reverse remodeling and myocardial repair. Specifically, the proinflammatory/fibrotic mediators: interleukin (IL)-6, epidermal growth factor, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 cause fibroplasia, whereas reparative cytokines including: IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-4, and IL-13 can limit fibrosis. In appropriate patients, cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) reverses cardiomyopathy and improves outcome. However, a significant proportion will not respond to this therapy. We conducted this study to assess the association of proinflammatory/fibrotic and/or reparative immune response mediators at baseline with outcome after CRT. In the multicenter RISK study, plasma samples were collected prospectively before CRT implantation. Plasma IL-6, epidermal growth factor, FGF-2, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-4, and IL-13 were evaluated by Luminex technology. The primary outcome was predefined as freedom from heart failure hospitalization or death and a decrease in echocardiographic end-systolic volume of >15% at 12 months. To determine associations with the outcome, multivariate logistic regression models including baseline clinical characteristics and the specific cytokines and growth factors were constructed. On multivariate analysis of 257 patients, detectable reparative cytokine IL-13 was significantly associated with the primary outcome (odds ratio 3.79; 95% CI 2.10 to 6.82, p <0.0001). In contrast, detectable proinflammatory/fibrotic growth factor FGF-2 was negatively associated (odds ratio 0.31; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.68; p = 0.004). In conclusion, in CRT recipients, baseline levels of inflammatory mediators affecting cardiac fibrosis versus repair were associated with subsequent clinical outcome.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine