Sanguinarine exhibits pH dependent structural equilibrium between iminium form (structure I) and alkanolamine form (structure II) with a pKa of 7.4 as revealed from spectrophotometric titration. The titration data show that the compound exists almost exclusively as structure I and structure II in the pH range 1 to 6 and 8.5 to 11, respectively. The interaction of structure I and structure II to several B-form natural and synthetic double and single stranded DNAs has been studied by spectrophotometric, spectrofluorimetric and circular dichroic measurements in buffers of pH 5.2 and pH 10.4 where the physicochemical properties of DNA remain in B-form structure. The results show that structure I bind strongly to all B-form DNA structures showing typical hypochromism and bathochromism of the alkaloid's absorption maximum, quenching of steady-state fluorescence intensity and perturbations in circular dichroic spectrum. The structure II does not bind to DNA, but in presence of large amount of DNA significant population of structure I is generated, which binds to DNA and forms a structure I-DNA intercalated complex. The nature and magnitude of the spectral pattern are very much dependent on the structure as well as base composition of each DNA. The generation of the structure I from structure II is significantly affected by increasing ionic strength of the medium. The conversion of structure II to structure I in presence of high concentration of DNA in solution is explained through formation of a binding equilibrium process between stucture II and structure I-DNA intercalated complex.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Structural Biology
- Molecular Biology