Influence of obesity on the incidence and treatment of genitourinary malignancies

Suzanne Biehn Stewart, Stephen J. Freedland

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

32 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Obesity is a growing epidemic in the United States. Many genitourinary malignancies are ranked among the current leading causes of cancer. As a result, there has been a surge of interest in understanding the impact of obesity on genitourinary malignancies. We sought to review the current literature concerning the influence of obesity on prostate, kidney, and bladder cancer. Methods: A PubMed search was performed using key words related to incidence, treatment, obesity, prostate, kidney, and bladder cancer. Relevant articles and their references were reviewed and utilized. Results: Obesity appears to promote an increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer (CaP). This may be related, in part, to a detection bias found in obese men. Worse surgical and radiation treatment outcomes in the obese appear to be related not only to technical challenges, but also inherent tumor biology differences and more aggressive disease presentations. A strong association between obesity and increased risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been established. Laparoscopic radical nephrectomy is now felt to be feasible in the obese and may be a lower morbidity technique compared with open surgery. Interestingly, obesity may confer an improved tumor-specific survival for localized RCC post nephrectomy. The influence of body mass index (BMI) on bladder cancer is poorly understood. Although a relationship may exist, due to the mixed and minimal observations, no firm conclusions should be drawn. Greater perioperative risks following open cystectomy have been found to occur in obese patients secondary to increase technical challenges. Conclusions: The relationship between obesity and genitourinary malignancy is impressive. Technical challenges undoubtedly play a role in influencing treatment outcomes. Inherent biological effects are also likely influential. Future research is necessary to delineate these mechanisms and further clarify the influence of obesity on genitourinary cancer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)476-486
Number of pages11
JournalUrologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations
Volume29
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2011

Fingerprint

Obesity
Incidence
Neoplasms
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
Prostatic Neoplasms
Therapeutics
Kidney Neoplasms
Nephrectomy
Renal Cell Carcinoma
Urogenital Neoplasms
Cystectomy
PubMed
Body Mass Index
Radiation
Morbidity
Survival

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Oncology
  • Urology

Cite this

@article{b71fa86a617a4896bd9c16288d1f0f49,
title = "Influence of obesity on the incidence and treatment of genitourinary malignancies",
abstract = "Background: Obesity is a growing epidemic in the United States. Many genitourinary malignancies are ranked among the current leading causes of cancer. As a result, there has been a surge of interest in understanding the impact of obesity on genitourinary malignancies. We sought to review the current literature concerning the influence of obesity on prostate, kidney, and bladder cancer. Methods: A PubMed search was performed using key words related to incidence, treatment, obesity, prostate, kidney, and bladder cancer. Relevant articles and their references were reviewed and utilized. Results: Obesity appears to promote an increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer (CaP). This may be related, in part, to a detection bias found in obese men. Worse surgical and radiation treatment outcomes in the obese appear to be related not only to technical challenges, but also inherent tumor biology differences and more aggressive disease presentations. A strong association between obesity and increased risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been established. Laparoscopic radical nephrectomy is now felt to be feasible in the obese and may be a lower morbidity technique compared with open surgery. Interestingly, obesity may confer an improved tumor-specific survival for localized RCC post nephrectomy. The influence of body mass index (BMI) on bladder cancer is poorly understood. Although a relationship may exist, due to the mixed and minimal observations, no firm conclusions should be drawn. Greater perioperative risks following open cystectomy have been found to occur in obese patients secondary to increase technical challenges. Conclusions: The relationship between obesity and genitourinary malignancy is impressive. Technical challenges undoubtedly play a role in influencing treatment outcomes. Inherent biological effects are also likely influential. Future research is necessary to delineate these mechanisms and further clarify the influence of obesity on genitourinary cancer.",
author = "Stewart, {Suzanne Biehn} and Freedland, {Stephen J.}",
year = "2011",
month = "9",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.urolonc.2009.12.011",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "29",
pages = "476--486",
journal = "Urologic Oncology",
issn = "1078-1439",
publisher = "Elsevier Inc.",
number = "5",

}

Influence of obesity on the incidence and treatment of genitourinary malignancies. / Stewart, Suzanne Biehn; Freedland, Stephen J.

In: Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations, Vol. 29, No. 5, 01.09.2011, p. 476-486.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

TY - JOUR

T1 - Influence of obesity on the incidence and treatment of genitourinary malignancies

AU - Stewart, Suzanne Biehn

AU - Freedland, Stephen J.

PY - 2011/9/1

Y1 - 2011/9/1

N2 - Background: Obesity is a growing epidemic in the United States. Many genitourinary malignancies are ranked among the current leading causes of cancer. As a result, there has been a surge of interest in understanding the impact of obesity on genitourinary malignancies. We sought to review the current literature concerning the influence of obesity on prostate, kidney, and bladder cancer. Methods: A PubMed search was performed using key words related to incidence, treatment, obesity, prostate, kidney, and bladder cancer. Relevant articles and their references were reviewed and utilized. Results: Obesity appears to promote an increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer (CaP). This may be related, in part, to a detection bias found in obese men. Worse surgical and radiation treatment outcomes in the obese appear to be related not only to technical challenges, but also inherent tumor biology differences and more aggressive disease presentations. A strong association between obesity and increased risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been established. Laparoscopic radical nephrectomy is now felt to be feasible in the obese and may be a lower morbidity technique compared with open surgery. Interestingly, obesity may confer an improved tumor-specific survival for localized RCC post nephrectomy. The influence of body mass index (BMI) on bladder cancer is poorly understood. Although a relationship may exist, due to the mixed and minimal observations, no firm conclusions should be drawn. Greater perioperative risks following open cystectomy have been found to occur in obese patients secondary to increase technical challenges. Conclusions: The relationship between obesity and genitourinary malignancy is impressive. Technical challenges undoubtedly play a role in influencing treatment outcomes. Inherent biological effects are also likely influential. Future research is necessary to delineate these mechanisms and further clarify the influence of obesity on genitourinary cancer.

AB - Background: Obesity is a growing epidemic in the United States. Many genitourinary malignancies are ranked among the current leading causes of cancer. As a result, there has been a surge of interest in understanding the impact of obesity on genitourinary malignancies. We sought to review the current literature concerning the influence of obesity on prostate, kidney, and bladder cancer. Methods: A PubMed search was performed using key words related to incidence, treatment, obesity, prostate, kidney, and bladder cancer. Relevant articles and their references were reviewed and utilized. Results: Obesity appears to promote an increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer (CaP). This may be related, in part, to a detection bias found in obese men. Worse surgical and radiation treatment outcomes in the obese appear to be related not only to technical challenges, but also inherent tumor biology differences and more aggressive disease presentations. A strong association between obesity and increased risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been established. Laparoscopic radical nephrectomy is now felt to be feasible in the obese and may be a lower morbidity technique compared with open surgery. Interestingly, obesity may confer an improved tumor-specific survival for localized RCC post nephrectomy. The influence of body mass index (BMI) on bladder cancer is poorly understood. Although a relationship may exist, due to the mixed and minimal observations, no firm conclusions should be drawn. Greater perioperative risks following open cystectomy have been found to occur in obese patients secondary to increase technical challenges. Conclusions: The relationship between obesity and genitourinary malignancy is impressive. Technical challenges undoubtedly play a role in influencing treatment outcomes. Inherent biological effects are also likely influential. Future research is necessary to delineate these mechanisms and further clarify the influence of obesity on genitourinary cancer.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=80052957021&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=80052957021&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.urolonc.2009.12.011

DO - 10.1016/j.urolonc.2009.12.011

M3 - Review article

C2 - 21147540

AN - SCOPUS:80052957021

VL - 29

SP - 476

EP - 486

JO - Urologic Oncology

JF - Urologic Oncology

SN - 1078-1439

IS - 5

ER -