Influence of training system on production of three apple cultivars

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

A planting of 'Ginger Gold', 'Crimson Gala' and 'Fuji' (BC#2) on M.9 NAKB T337 rootstock was established in 1997 at the Horticultural Research Farm at Rock Springs in central Pennsylvania, USA. The cultivars chosen represented three distinct growth habits. The trees were trained to one of four training systems; a vertical a×e (A), a slender spindle (SS), 4 wire trellis (T) and an V-a×e (VA), where alternate trees were trained to opposite sides at a 60° angle. Trees in the first three systems were planted at 1.8×3.6 m or 1495 trees/ha. The VA was planted at 0.9×4.9 m or 2241 trees/ha. With all cultivars, the VA system had the smallest trees as measured by trunk cross sectional area. Among cultivars 'Fuji' were the largest trees in all training systems followed by 'Gala' and then 'Ginger Gold'. In general the tallest trees were those trained to the A; while the shortest were those in the T system. Among cultivars 'Fuji' tended to be the shortest trees; significantly so for three out of four systems. With all cultivars the cumulative yield per tree has been greatest for trees trained to the A, although with 'Fuji' the yields were not significantly different from the SS or T. The lowest yields per tree were consistently from trees trained to the VA; although for 'Ginger Gold' and 'Gala' they were not significantly lower than the other two systems. In the SS and the T systems, 'Fuji' had significantly greater yields per tree than either 'Ginger Gold' or 'Gala'. Cumulative yields per hectare for 'Ginger Gold' and 'Gala' was greatest on the VA system but not significantly better than trees trained to the A system. With 'Fuji' the greatest yields were on tree in the A system but not significantly better than the VA or SS system. In general due to the shorter height of the T system yields were lower.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationIX International Symposium on Integrating Canopy, Rootstock and Environmental Physiology in Orchard Systems
PublisherInternational Society for Horticultural Science
Pages619-626
Number of pages8
ISBN (Print)9789066052970
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2011

Publication series

NameActa Horticulturae
Volume903
ISSN (Print)0567-7572

Fingerprint

apples
cultivars
ginger
gold
growth habit
wire
tree trunk
rootstocks
rocks
planting
farms

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Horticulture

Cite this

Crassweller, R. M., & Smith, D. E. (2011). Influence of training system on production of three apple cultivars. In IX International Symposium on Integrating Canopy, Rootstock and Environmental Physiology in Orchard Systems (pp. 619-626). (Acta Horticulturae; Vol. 903). International Society for Horticultural Science. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2011.903.85
Crassweller, Robert Michael ; Smith, D. E. / Influence of training system on production of three apple cultivars. IX International Symposium on Integrating Canopy, Rootstock and Environmental Physiology in Orchard Systems. International Society for Horticultural Science, 2011. pp. 619-626 (Acta Horticulturae).
@inproceedings{81a18cdaf8244116b3d825850e808ab2,
title = "Influence of training system on production of three apple cultivars",
abstract = "A planting of 'Ginger Gold', 'Crimson Gala' and 'Fuji' (BC#2) on M.9 NAKB T337 rootstock was established in 1997 at the Horticultural Research Farm at Rock Springs in central Pennsylvania, USA. The cultivars chosen represented three distinct growth habits. The trees were trained to one of four training systems; a vertical a×e (A), a slender spindle (SS), 4 wire trellis (T) and an V-a×e (VA), where alternate trees were trained to opposite sides at a 60° angle. Trees in the first three systems were planted at 1.8×3.6 m or 1495 trees/ha. The VA was planted at 0.9×4.9 m or 2241 trees/ha. With all cultivars, the VA system had the smallest trees as measured by trunk cross sectional area. Among cultivars 'Fuji' were the largest trees in all training systems followed by 'Gala' and then 'Ginger Gold'. In general the tallest trees were those trained to the A; while the shortest were those in the T system. Among cultivars 'Fuji' tended to be the shortest trees; significantly so for three out of four systems. With all cultivars the cumulative yield per tree has been greatest for trees trained to the A, although with 'Fuji' the yields were not significantly different from the SS or T. The lowest yields per tree were consistently from trees trained to the VA; although for 'Ginger Gold' and 'Gala' they were not significantly lower than the other two systems. In the SS and the T systems, 'Fuji' had significantly greater yields per tree than either 'Ginger Gold' or 'Gala'. Cumulative yields per hectare for 'Ginger Gold' and 'Gala' was greatest on the VA system but not significantly better than trees trained to the A system. With 'Fuji' the greatest yields were on tree in the A system but not significantly better than the VA or SS system. In general due to the shorter height of the T system yields were lower.",
author = "Crassweller, {Robert Michael} and Smith, {D. E.}",
year = "2011",
month = "8",
day = "1",
doi = "10.17660/ActaHortic.2011.903.85",
language = "English (US)",
isbn = "9789066052970",
series = "Acta Horticulturae",
publisher = "International Society for Horticultural Science",
pages = "619--626",
booktitle = "IX International Symposium on Integrating Canopy, Rootstock and Environmental Physiology in Orchard Systems",
address = "Belgium",

}

Crassweller, RM & Smith, DE 2011, Influence of training system on production of three apple cultivars. in IX International Symposium on Integrating Canopy, Rootstock and Environmental Physiology in Orchard Systems. Acta Horticulturae, vol. 903, International Society for Horticultural Science, pp. 619-626. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2011.903.85

Influence of training system on production of three apple cultivars. / Crassweller, Robert Michael; Smith, D. E.

IX International Symposium on Integrating Canopy, Rootstock and Environmental Physiology in Orchard Systems. International Society for Horticultural Science, 2011. p. 619-626 (Acta Horticulturae; Vol. 903).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

TY - GEN

T1 - Influence of training system on production of three apple cultivars

AU - Crassweller, Robert Michael

AU - Smith, D. E.

PY - 2011/8/1

Y1 - 2011/8/1

N2 - A planting of 'Ginger Gold', 'Crimson Gala' and 'Fuji' (BC#2) on M.9 NAKB T337 rootstock was established in 1997 at the Horticultural Research Farm at Rock Springs in central Pennsylvania, USA. The cultivars chosen represented three distinct growth habits. The trees were trained to one of four training systems; a vertical a×e (A), a slender spindle (SS), 4 wire trellis (T) and an V-a×e (VA), where alternate trees were trained to opposite sides at a 60° angle. Trees in the first three systems were planted at 1.8×3.6 m or 1495 trees/ha. The VA was planted at 0.9×4.9 m or 2241 trees/ha. With all cultivars, the VA system had the smallest trees as measured by trunk cross sectional area. Among cultivars 'Fuji' were the largest trees in all training systems followed by 'Gala' and then 'Ginger Gold'. In general the tallest trees were those trained to the A; while the shortest were those in the T system. Among cultivars 'Fuji' tended to be the shortest trees; significantly so for three out of four systems. With all cultivars the cumulative yield per tree has been greatest for trees trained to the A, although with 'Fuji' the yields were not significantly different from the SS or T. The lowest yields per tree were consistently from trees trained to the VA; although for 'Ginger Gold' and 'Gala' they were not significantly lower than the other two systems. In the SS and the T systems, 'Fuji' had significantly greater yields per tree than either 'Ginger Gold' or 'Gala'. Cumulative yields per hectare for 'Ginger Gold' and 'Gala' was greatest on the VA system but not significantly better than trees trained to the A system. With 'Fuji' the greatest yields were on tree in the A system but not significantly better than the VA or SS system. In general due to the shorter height of the T system yields were lower.

AB - A planting of 'Ginger Gold', 'Crimson Gala' and 'Fuji' (BC#2) on M.9 NAKB T337 rootstock was established in 1997 at the Horticultural Research Farm at Rock Springs in central Pennsylvania, USA. The cultivars chosen represented three distinct growth habits. The trees were trained to one of four training systems; a vertical a×e (A), a slender spindle (SS), 4 wire trellis (T) and an V-a×e (VA), where alternate trees were trained to opposite sides at a 60° angle. Trees in the first three systems were planted at 1.8×3.6 m or 1495 trees/ha. The VA was planted at 0.9×4.9 m or 2241 trees/ha. With all cultivars, the VA system had the smallest trees as measured by trunk cross sectional area. Among cultivars 'Fuji' were the largest trees in all training systems followed by 'Gala' and then 'Ginger Gold'. In general the tallest trees were those trained to the A; while the shortest were those in the T system. Among cultivars 'Fuji' tended to be the shortest trees; significantly so for three out of four systems. With all cultivars the cumulative yield per tree has been greatest for trees trained to the A, although with 'Fuji' the yields were not significantly different from the SS or T. The lowest yields per tree were consistently from trees trained to the VA; although for 'Ginger Gold' and 'Gala' they were not significantly lower than the other two systems. In the SS and the T systems, 'Fuji' had significantly greater yields per tree than either 'Ginger Gold' or 'Gala'. Cumulative yields per hectare for 'Ginger Gold' and 'Gala' was greatest on the VA system but not significantly better than trees trained to the A system. With 'Fuji' the greatest yields were on tree in the A system but not significantly better than the VA or SS system. In general due to the shorter height of the T system yields were lower.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=80053253643&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=80053253643&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.17660/ActaHortic.2011.903.85

DO - 10.17660/ActaHortic.2011.903.85

M3 - Conference contribution

AN - SCOPUS:80053253643

SN - 9789066052970

T3 - Acta Horticulturae

SP - 619

EP - 626

BT - IX International Symposium on Integrating Canopy, Rootstock and Environmental Physiology in Orchard Systems

PB - International Society for Horticultural Science

ER -

Crassweller RM, Smith DE. Influence of training system on production of three apple cultivars. In IX International Symposium on Integrating Canopy, Rootstock and Environmental Physiology in Orchard Systems. International Society for Horticultural Science. 2011. p. 619-626. (Acta Horticulturae). https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2011.903.85