Horizontal cells are second-order neurons in the outer retina that make reciprocal synapses with rod and cone photoreceptors, and form a laterally extending syncytium through light-modulated gap junctions with their neighbors. There are two physiological classes of horizontal cells, encoding luminosity and chromaticity. They play key roles in generating the inhibitory spatial and color-opponent receptive-field surround properties of photoreceptors and bipolar cells, as well as modulating the synaptic gain of photoreceptor synapses, to contribute to visual processing that highlights changes in contrast, luminance, and color to improve visual acuity in the vertebrate retina.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||Encyclopedia of the Eye, Four-Volume Set|
|Number of pages||9|
|State||Published - Jan 1 2010|
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