Insights into the high-energy γ-ray emission of Markarian 501 from extensive multifrequency observations in the Fermi era

A. A. Abdo, M. Ackermann, M. Ajello, A. Allafort, L. Baldini, J. Ballet, G. Barbiellini, M. G. Baring, D. Bastieri, K. Bechtol, R. Bellazzini, B. Berenji, R. D. Blandford, E. D. Bloom, E. Bonamente, A. W. Borgland, A. Bouvier, T. J. Brandt, J. Bregeon, A. BrezM. Brigida, P. Bruel, R. Buehler, S. Buson, G. A. Caliandro, R. A. Cameron, A. Cannon, P. A. Caraveo, S. Carrigan, J. M. Casandjian, E. Cavazzuti, C. Cecchi, Ö Çelik, E. Charles, A. Chekhtman, C. C. Cheung, J. Chiang, S. Ciprini, R. Claus, J. Cohen-Tanugi, J. Conrad, S. Cutini, C. D. Dermer, F. De Palma, E. Do Couto E Silva, P. S. Drell, R. Dubois, D. Dumora, C. Favuzzi, S. J. Fegan, E. C. Ferrara, W. B. Focke, P. Fortin, M. Frailis, L. Fuhrmann, Y. Fukazawa, S. Funk, P. Fusco, F. Gargano, D. Gasparrini, N. Gehrels, S. Germani, N. Giglietto, F. Giordano, M. Giroletti, T. Glanzman, G. Godfrey, I. A. Grenier, L. Guillemot, S. Guiriec, M. Hayashida, E. Hays, D. Horan, R. E. Hughes, G. Jóhannesson, A. S. Johnson, W. N. Johnson, M. Kadler, T. Kamae, H. Katagiri, J. Kataoka, J. Knödlseder, M. Kuss, J. Lande, L. Latronico, S. H. Lee, M. Lemoine-Goumard, F. Longo, F. Loparco, B. Lott, M. N. Lovellette, P. Lubrano, G. M. Madejski, A. Makeev, W. Max-Moerbeck, M. N. Mazziotta, J. E. McEnery, J. Mehault, P. F. Michelson, W. Mitthumsiri, T. Mizuno, A. A. Moiseev, C. Monte, M. E. Monzani, A. Morselli, I. V. Moskalenko, S. Murgia, M. Naumann-Godo, S. Nishino, P. L. Nolan, J. P. Norris, E. Nuss, T. Ohsugi, A. Okumura, N. Omodei, E. Orlando, J. F. Ormes, D. Paneque, J. H. Panetta, D. Parent, V. Pavlidou, T. J. Pearson, V. Pelassa, M. Pepe, M. Pesce-Rollins, F. Piron, T. A. Porter, S. Rainò, R. Rando, M. Razzano, A. Readhead, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, J. L. Richards, J. Ripken, S. Ritz, M. Roth, H. F.W. Sadrozinski, D. Sanchez, A. Sander, J. D. Scargle, C. Sgrò, E. J. Siskind, P. D. Smith, G. Spandre, P. Spinelli, L. Stawarz, M. Stevenson, M. S. Strickm, K. V. Sokolovsky, D. J. Suson, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, T. Tanaka, J. B. Thayer, J. G. Thayer, D. J. Thompson, L. Tibaldo, D. F. Torres, G. Tosti, A. Tramacere, Y. Uchiyama, T. L. Usher, J. Vandenbroucke, V. Vasileiou, N. Vilchez, V. Vitale, A. P. Waite, P. Wang, A. E. Wehrle, B. L. Winer, K. S. Wood, Z. Yang, T. Ylinen, J. A. Zensus, M. Ziegler, J. Aleksić, L. A. Antonelli, P. Antoranz, M. Backes, J. A. Barrio, J. Becerra González, W. Bednarek, A. Berdyugin, K. Berger, E. Bernardini, A. Biland, O. Blanch, R. K. Bock, A. Boller, G. Bonnoli, P. Bordas, D. Borla Tridon, V. Bosch-Ramon, D. Bose, I. Braun, T. Bretz, M. Camara, E. Carmona, A. Carosi, P. Colin, E. Colombo, J. L. Contreras, J. Cortina, S. Covino, F. Dazzi, A. De Angelis, E. De Cea Del Pozo, B. De Lotto, M. De Maria, F. De Sabata, C. Delgado Mendez, A. Diago Ortega, M. Doert, A. Domínguez, D. Dominis Prester, D. Dorner, M. Doro, D. Elsaesser, D. Ferenc, M. V. Fonseca, L. Font, R. J.García López, M. Garczarczyk, M. Gaug, G. Giavitto, N. Godinovi, D. Hadasch, A. Herrero, D. Hildebrand, D. Höhne-Mönch, J. Hose, D. Hrupec, T. Jogler, S. Klepser, T. Krähenbühl, D. Kranich, J. Krause, A. La Barbera, E. Leonardo, E. Lindfors, S. Lombardi, M. López, E. Lorenz, P. Majumdar, E. Makariev, G. Maneva, N. Mankuzhiyil, K. Mannheim, L. Maraschi, M. Mariotti, M. Martínez, D. Mazin, M. Meucci, J. M. Miranda, R. Mirzoyan, H. Miyamoto, J. Moldón, A. Moralejo, D. Nieto, K. Nilsson, R. Orito, I. Oya, R. Paoletti, J. M. Paredes, S. Partini, M. Pasanen, F. Pauss, R. G. Pegna, M. A. Perez-Torres, M. Persic, J. Peruzzo, J. Pochon, P. G. Prada Moroni, F. Prada, E. Prandini, N. Puchades, I. Puljak, T. Reichardt, R. Reinthal, W. Rhode, M. Ribó, J. Rico, M. Rissi, S. Rügamer, A. Saggion, K. Saito, T. Y. Saito, M. Salvati, M. Sánchez-Conde, K. Satalecka, V. Scalzotto, V. Scapin, C. Schultz, T. Schweizer, M. Shayduk, S. N. Shore, A. Sierpowska-Bartosik, A. Sillanpää, J. Sitarek, D. Sobczynska, F. Spanier, S. Spiro, A. Stamerra, B. Steinke, J. Storz, N. Strah, J. C. Struebig, T. Suric, L. O. Takalo, F. Tavecchio, P. Temnikov, T. Terzić, D. Tescaro, M. Teshima, H. Vankov, R. M. Wagner, Q. Weitzel, V. Zabalza, F. Zandanel, R. Zanin, V. A. Acciari, T. Arlen, T. Aune, W. Benbow, D. Boltuch, S. M. Bradbury, J. H. Buckley, V. Bugaev, A. Cannon, A. Cesarini, L. Ciupik, W. Cui, R. Dickherber, M. Errando, A. Falcone, J. P. Finley, G. Finnegan, L. Fortson, A. Furniss, N. Galante, D. Gall, G. H. Gillanders, S. Godambe, J. Grube, R. Guenette, G. Gyuk, D. Hanna, J. Holder, D. Huang, C. M. Hui, T. B. Humensky, P. Kaaret, N. Karlsson, M. Kertzman, D. Kieda, A. Konopelko, H. Krawczynski, F. Krennrich, M. J. Lang, G. Maier, S. McArthur, A. McCann, M. McCutcheon, P. Moriarty, R. Mukherjee, R. Ong, A. N. Otte, D. Pandel, J. S. Perkins, A. Pichel, M. Pohl, J. Quinn, K. Ragan, L. C. Reyes, P. T. Reynolds, E. Roache, H. J. Rose, A. C. Rovero, M. Schroedter, G. H. Sembroski, G. D. Senturk, D. Steele, S. P. Swordy, G. Tešić, M. Theiling, S. Thibadeau, A. Varlotta, S. Vincent, S. P. Wakely, J. E. Ward, T. C. Weekes, A. Weinstein, T. Weisgarber, D. A. Williams, M. Wood, B. Zitzer, M. Villata, C. M. Raiteri, H. D. Aller, M. F. Aller, A. A. Arkharov, D. A. Blinov, P. Calcidese, W. P. Chen, N. V. Efimova, G. Kimeridze, T. S. Konstantinova, E. N. Kopatskaya, E. Koptelova, O. M. Kurtanidze, S. O. Kurtanidze, A. Lähteenmäki, V. M. Larionov, E. G. Larionova, L. V. Larionova, R. Ligustri, D. A. Morozova, M. G. Nikolashvili, L. A. Sigua, I. S. Troitsky, E. Angelakis, M. Capalbi, A. Carramiñana, L. Carrasco, P. Cassaro, E. De La Fuente, M. A. Gurwell, Y. Y. Kovalev, Yu A. Kovalev, T. P. Krichbaum, H. A. Krimm, P. Leto, M. L. Lister, G. Maccaferri, J. W. Moody, Y. Mori, I. Nestoras, A. Orlati, C. Pagani, C. Pace, R. Pearson, M. Perri, B. G. Piner, A. B. Pushkarev, E. Ros, A. C. Sadun, T. Sakamoto, M. Tornikoski, Y. Yatsu, A. Zook

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

126 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We report on the γ-ray activity of the blazar Mrk 501 during the first 480 days of Fermi operation. We find that the average Large Area Telescope (LAT) γ-ray spectrum of Mrk 501 can be well described by a single power-law function with a photon index of 1.78 ± 0.03. While we observe relatively mild flux variations with the Fermi-LAT (within less than a factor of two), we detect remarkable spectral variability where the hardest observed spectral index within the LAT energy range is 1.52 ± 0.14, and the softest one is 2.51 ± 0.20. These unexpected spectral changes do not correlate with the measured flux variations above 0.3 GeV. In this paper, we also present the first results from the 4.5 month long multifrequency campaign (2009 March 15-August 1) on Mrk 501, which included the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), Swift, RXTE, MAGIC, and VERITAS, the F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, and other collaborations and instruments which provided excellent temporal and energy coverage of the source throughout the entire campaign. The extensive radio to TeV data set from this campaign provides us with the most detailed spectral energy distribution yet collected for this source during its relatively low activity. The average spectral energy distribution of Mrk 501 is well described by the standard one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model. In the framework of this model, we find that the dominant emission region is characterized by a size ≲0.1 pc (comparable within a factor of few to the size of the partially resolved VLBA core at 15-43 GHz), and that the total jet power (≃1044 erg s-1) constitutes only a small fraction (∼10-3) of the Eddington luminosity. The energy distribution of the freshly accelerated radiating electrons required to fit the time-averaged data has a broken power-law form in the energy range 0.3 GeV-10 TeV, with spectral indices 2.2 and 2.7 below and above the break energy of 20 GeV. We argue that such a form is consistent with a scenario in which the bulk of the energy dissipation within the dominant emission zone of Mrk 501 is due to relativistic, proton-mediated shocks. We find that the ultrarelativistic electrons and mildly relativistic protons within the blazar zone, if comparable in number, are in approximate energy equipartition, with their energy dominating the jet magnetic field energy by about two orders of magnitude.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume727
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2011

Fingerprint

rays
Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA)
energy
telescopes
spectral energy distribution
Global Air Sampling Program
equipartition theorem
protons
X Ray Timing Explorer
power law
energy distribution
synchrotrons
electrons
energy dissipation
electron
shock
luminosity
erg
photons
magnetic fields

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Abdo, A. A. ; Ackermann, M. ; Ajello, M. ; Allafort, A. ; Baldini, L. ; Ballet, J. ; Barbiellini, G. ; Baring, M. G. ; Bastieri, D. ; Bechtol, K. ; Bellazzini, R. ; Berenji, B. ; Blandford, R. D. ; Bloom, E. D. ; Bonamente, E. ; Borgland, A. W. ; Bouvier, A. ; Brandt, T. J. ; Bregeon, J. ; Brez, A. ; Brigida, M. ; Bruel, P. ; Buehler, R. ; Buson, S. ; Caliandro, G. A. ; Cameron, R. A. ; Cannon, A. ; Caraveo, P. A. ; Carrigan, S. ; Casandjian, J. M. ; Cavazzuti, E. ; Cecchi, C. ; Çelik, Ö ; Charles, E. ; Chekhtman, A. ; Cheung, C. C. ; Chiang, J. ; Ciprini, S. ; Claus, R. ; Cohen-Tanugi, J. ; Conrad, J. ; Cutini, S. ; Dermer, C. D. ; De Palma, F. ; Do Couto E Silva, E. ; Drell, P. S. ; Dubois, R. ; Dumora, D. ; Favuzzi, C. ; Fegan, S. J. ; Ferrara, E. C. ; Focke, W. B. ; Fortin, P. ; Frailis, M. ; Fuhrmann, L. ; Fukazawa, Y. ; Funk, S. ; Fusco, P. ; Gargano, F. ; Gasparrini, D. ; Gehrels, N. ; Germani, S. ; Giglietto, N. ; Giordano, F. ; Giroletti, M. ; Glanzman, T. ; Godfrey, G. ; Grenier, I. A. ; Guillemot, L. ; Guiriec, S. ; Hayashida, M. ; Hays, E. ; Horan, D. ; Hughes, R. E. ; Jóhannesson, G. ; Johnson, A. S. ; Johnson, W. N. ; Kadler, M. ; Kamae, T. ; Katagiri, H. ; Kataoka, J. ; Knödlseder, J. ; Kuss, M. ; Lande, J. ; Latronico, L. ; Lee, S. H. ; Lemoine-Goumard, M. ; Longo, F. ; Loparco, F. ; Lott, B. ; Lovellette, M. N. ; Lubrano, P. ; Madejski, G. M. ; Makeev, A. ; Max-Moerbeck, W. ; Mazziotta, M. N. ; McEnery, J. E. ; Mehault, J. ; Michelson, P. F. ; Mitthumsiri, W. ; Mizuno, T. ; Moiseev, A. A. ; Monte, C. ; Monzani, M. E. ; Morselli, A. ; Moskalenko, I. V. ; Murgia, S. ; Naumann-Godo, M. ; Nishino, S. ; Nolan, P. L. ; Norris, J. P. ; Nuss, E. ; Ohsugi, T. ; Okumura, A. ; Omodei, N. ; Orlando, E. ; Ormes, J. F. ; Paneque, D. ; Panetta, J. H. ; Parent, D. ; Pavlidou, V. ; Pearson, T. J. ; Pelassa, V. ; Pepe, M. ; Pesce-Rollins, M. ; Piron, F. ; Porter, T. A. ; Rainò, S. ; Rando, R. ; Razzano, M. ; Readhead, A. ; Reimer, A. ; Reimer, O. ; Richards, J. L. ; Ripken, J. ; Ritz, S. ; Roth, M. ; Sadrozinski, H. F.W. ; Sanchez, D. ; Sander, A. ; Scargle, J. D. ; Sgrò, C. ; Siskind, E. J. ; Smith, P. D. ; Spandre, G. ; Spinelli, P. ; Stawarz, L. ; Stevenson, M. ; Strickm, M. S. ; Sokolovsky, K. V. ; Suson, D. J. ; Takahashi, H. ; Takahashi, T. ; Tanaka, T. ; Thayer, J. B. ; Thayer, J. G. ; Thompson, D. J. ; Tibaldo, L. ; Torres, D. F. ; Tosti, G. ; Tramacere, A. ; Uchiyama, Y. ; Usher, T. L. ; Vandenbroucke, J. ; Vasileiou, V. ; Vilchez, N. ; Vitale, V. ; Waite, A. P. ; Wang, P. ; Wehrle, A. E. ; Winer, B. L. ; Wood, K. S. ; Yang, Z. ; Ylinen, T. ; Zensus, J. A. ; Ziegler, M. ; Aleksić, J. ; Antonelli, L. A. ; Antoranz, P. ; Backes, M. ; Barrio, J. A. ; González, J. Becerra ; Bednarek, W. ; Berdyugin, A. ; Berger, K. ; Bernardini, E. ; Biland, A. ; Blanch, O. ; Bock, R. K. ; Boller, A. ; Bonnoli, G. ; Bordas, P. ; Tridon, D. Borla ; Bosch-Ramon, V. ; Bose, D. ; Braun, I. ; Bretz, T. ; Camara, M. ; Carmona, E. ; Carosi, A. ; Colin, P. ; Colombo, E. ; Contreras, J. L. ; Cortina, J. ; Covino, S. ; Dazzi, F. ; De Angelis, A. ; De Cea Del Pozo, E. ; De Lotto, B. ; De Maria, M. ; De Sabata, F. ; Delgado Mendez, C. ; Diago Ortega, A. ; Doert, M. ; Domínguez, A. ; Prester, D. Dominis ; Dorner, D. ; Doro, M. ; Elsaesser, D. ; Ferenc, D. ; Fonseca, M. V. ; Font, L. ; López, R. J.García ; Garczarczyk, M. ; Gaug, M. ; Giavitto, G. ; Godinovi, N. ; Hadasch, D. ; Herrero, A. ; Hildebrand, D. ; Höhne-Mönch, D. ; Hose, J. ; Hrupec, D. ; Jogler, T. ; Klepser, S. ; Krähenbühl, T. ; Kranich, D. ; Krause, J. ; La Barbera, A. ; Leonardo, E. ; Lindfors, E. ; Lombardi, S. ; López, M. ; Lorenz, E. ; Majumdar, P. ; Makariev, E. ; Maneva, G. ; Mankuzhiyil, N. ; Mannheim, K. ; Maraschi, L. ; Mariotti, M. ; Martínez, M. ; Mazin, D. ; Meucci, M. ; Miranda, J. M. ; Mirzoyan, R. ; Miyamoto, H. ; Moldón, J. ; Moralejo, A. ; Nieto, D. ; Nilsson, K. ; Orito, R. ; Oya, I. ; Paoletti, R. ; Paredes, J. M. ; Partini, S. ; Pasanen, M. ; Pauss, F. ; Pegna, R. G. ; Perez-Torres, M. A. ; Persic, M. ; Peruzzo, J. ; Pochon, J. ; Prada Moroni, P. G. ; Prada, F. ; Prandini, E. ; Puchades, N. ; Puljak, I. ; Reichardt, T. ; Reinthal, R. ; Rhode, W. ; Ribó, M. ; Rico, J. ; Rissi, M. ; Rügamer, S. ; Saggion, A. ; Saito, K. ; Saito, T. Y. ; Salvati, M. ; Sánchez-Conde, M. ; Satalecka, K. ; Scalzotto, V. ; Scapin, V. ; Schultz, C. ; Schweizer, T. ; Shayduk, M. ; Shore, S. N. ; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A. ; Sillanpää, A. ; Sitarek, J. ; Sobczynska, D. ; Spanier, F. ; Spiro, S. ; Stamerra, A. ; Steinke, B. ; Storz, J. ; Strah, N. ; Struebig, J. C. ; Suric, T. ; Takalo, L. O. ; Tavecchio, F. ; Temnikov, P. ; Terzić, T. ; Tescaro, D. ; Teshima, M. ; Vankov, H. ; Wagner, R. M. ; Weitzel, Q. ; Zabalza, V. ; Zandanel, F. ; Zanin, R. ; Acciari, V. A. ; Arlen, T. ; Aune, T. ; Benbow, W. ; Boltuch, D. ; Bradbury, S. M. ; Buckley, J. H. ; Bugaev, V. ; Cannon, A. ; Cesarini, A. ; Ciupik, L. ; Cui, W. ; Dickherber, R. ; Errando, M. ; Falcone, A. ; Finley, J. P. ; Finnegan, G. ; Fortson, L. ; Furniss, A. ; Galante, N. ; Gall, D. ; Gillanders, G. H. ; Godambe, S. ; Grube, J. ; Guenette, R. ; Gyuk, G. ; Hanna, D. ; Holder, J. ; Huang, D. ; Hui, C. M. ; Humensky, T. B. ; Kaaret, P. ; Karlsson, N. ; Kertzman, M. ; Kieda, D. ; Konopelko, A. ; Krawczynski, H. ; Krennrich, F. ; Lang, M. J. ; Maier, G. ; McArthur, S. ; McCann, A. ; McCutcheon, M. ; Moriarty, P. ; Mukherjee, R. ; Ong, R. ; Otte, A. N. ; Pandel, D. ; Perkins, J. S. ; Pichel, A. ; Pohl, M. ; Quinn, J. ; Ragan, K. ; Reyes, L. C. ; Reynolds, P. T. ; Roache, E. ; Rose, H. J. ; Rovero, A. C. ; Schroedter, M. ; Sembroski, G. H. ; Senturk, G. D. ; Steele, D. ; Swordy, S. P. ; Tešić, G. ; Theiling, M. ; Thibadeau, S. ; Varlotta, A. ; Vincent, S. ; Wakely, S. P. ; Ward, J. E. ; Weekes, T. C. ; Weinstein, A. ; Weisgarber, T. ; Williams, D. A. ; Wood, M. ; Zitzer, B. ; Villata, M. ; Raiteri, C. M. ; Aller, H. D. ; Aller, M. F. ; Arkharov, A. A. ; Blinov, D. A. ; Calcidese, P. ; Chen, W. P. ; Efimova, N. V. ; Kimeridze, G. ; Konstantinova, T. S. ; Kopatskaya, E. N. ; Koptelova, E. ; Kurtanidze, O. M. ; Kurtanidze, S. O. ; Lähteenmäki, A. ; Larionov, V. M. ; Larionova, E. G. ; Larionova, L. V. ; Ligustri, R. ; Morozova, D. A. ; Nikolashvili, M. G. ; Sigua, L. A. ; Troitsky, I. S. ; Angelakis, E. ; Capalbi, M. ; Carramiñana, A. ; Carrasco, L. ; Cassaro, P. ; De La Fuente, E. ; Gurwell, M. A. ; Kovalev, Y. Y. ; Kovalev, Yu A. ; Krichbaum, T. P. ; Krimm, H. A. ; Leto, P. ; Lister, M. L. ; Maccaferri, G. ; Moody, J. W. ; Mori, Y. ; Nestoras, I. ; Orlati, A. ; Pagani, C. ; Pace, C. ; Pearson, R. ; Perri, M. ; Piner, B. G. ; Pushkarev, A. B. ; Ros, E. ; Sadun, A. C. ; Sakamoto, T. ; Tornikoski, M. ; Yatsu, Y. ; Zook, A. / Insights into the high-energy γ-ray emission of Markarian 501 from extensive multifrequency observations in the Fermi era. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2011 ; Vol. 727, No. 2.
@article{2a775f4035ba40879c84d40968ea54c0,
title = "Insights into the high-energy γ-ray emission of Markarian 501 from extensive multifrequency observations in the Fermi era",
abstract = "We report on the γ-ray activity of the blazar Mrk 501 during the first 480 days of Fermi operation. We find that the average Large Area Telescope (LAT) γ-ray spectrum of Mrk 501 can be well described by a single power-law function with a photon index of 1.78 ± 0.03. While we observe relatively mild flux variations with the Fermi-LAT (within less than a factor of two), we detect remarkable spectral variability where the hardest observed spectral index within the LAT energy range is 1.52 ± 0.14, and the softest one is 2.51 ± 0.20. These unexpected spectral changes do not correlate with the measured flux variations above 0.3 GeV. In this paper, we also present the first results from the 4.5 month long multifrequency campaign (2009 March 15-August 1) on Mrk 501, which included the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), Swift, RXTE, MAGIC, and VERITAS, the F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, and other collaborations and instruments which provided excellent temporal and energy coverage of the source throughout the entire campaign. The extensive radio to TeV data set from this campaign provides us with the most detailed spectral energy distribution yet collected for this source during its relatively low activity. The average spectral energy distribution of Mrk 501 is well described by the standard one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model. In the framework of this model, we find that the dominant emission region is characterized by a size ≲0.1 pc (comparable within a factor of few to the size of the partially resolved VLBA core at 15-43 GHz), and that the total jet power (≃1044 erg s-1) constitutes only a small fraction (∼10-3) of the Eddington luminosity. The energy distribution of the freshly accelerated radiating electrons required to fit the time-averaged data has a broken power-law form in the energy range 0.3 GeV-10 TeV, with spectral indices 2.2 and 2.7 below and above the break energy of 20 GeV. We argue that such a form is consistent with a scenario in which the bulk of the energy dissipation within the dominant emission zone of Mrk 501 is due to relativistic, proton-mediated shocks. We find that the ultrarelativistic electrons and mildly relativistic protons within the blazar zone, if comparable in number, are in approximate energy equipartition, with their energy dominating the jet magnetic field energy by about two orders of magnitude.",
author = "Abdo, {A. A.} and M. Ackermann and M. Ajello and A. Allafort and L. Baldini and J. Ballet and G. Barbiellini and Baring, {M. G.} and D. Bastieri and K. Bechtol and R. Bellazzini and B. Berenji and Blandford, {R. D.} and Bloom, {E. D.} and E. Bonamente and Borgland, {A. W.} and A. Bouvier and Brandt, {T. J.} and J. Bregeon and A. Brez and M. Brigida and P. Bruel and R. Buehler and S. Buson and Caliandro, {G. A.} and Cameron, {R. A.} and A. Cannon and Caraveo, {P. A.} and S. Carrigan and Casandjian, {J. M.} and E. Cavazzuti and C. Cecchi and {\"O} {\cC}elik and E. Charles and A. Chekhtman and Cheung, {C. C.} and J. Chiang and S. Ciprini and R. Claus and J. Cohen-Tanugi and J. Conrad and S. Cutini and Dermer, {C. D.} and {De Palma}, F. and {Do Couto E Silva}, E. and Drell, {P. S.} and R. Dubois and D. Dumora and C. Favuzzi and Fegan, {S. J.} and Ferrara, {E. C.} and Focke, {W. B.} and P. Fortin and M. Frailis and L. Fuhrmann and Y. Fukazawa and S. Funk and P. Fusco and F. Gargano and D. Gasparrini and N. Gehrels and S. Germani and N. Giglietto and F. Giordano and M. Giroletti and T. Glanzman and G. Godfrey and Grenier, {I. A.} and L. Guillemot and S. Guiriec and M. Hayashida and E. Hays and D. Horan and Hughes, {R. E.} and G. J{\'o}hannesson and Johnson, {A. S.} and Johnson, {W. N.} and M. Kadler and T. Kamae and H. Katagiri and J. Kataoka and J. Kn{\"o}dlseder and M. Kuss and J. Lande and L. Latronico and Lee, {S. H.} and M. Lemoine-Goumard and F. Longo and F. Loparco and B. Lott and Lovellette, {M. N.} and P. Lubrano and Madejski, {G. M.} and A. Makeev and W. Max-Moerbeck and Mazziotta, {M. N.} and McEnery, {J. E.} and J. Mehault and Michelson, {P. F.} and W. Mitthumsiri and T. Mizuno and Moiseev, {A. A.} and C. Monte and Monzani, {M. E.} and A. Morselli and Moskalenko, {I. V.} and S. Murgia and M. Naumann-Godo and S. Nishino and Nolan, {P. L.} and Norris, {J. P.} and E. Nuss and T. Ohsugi and A. Okumura and N. Omodei and E. Orlando and Ormes, {J. F.} and D. Paneque and Panetta, {J. H.} and D. Parent and V. Pavlidou and Pearson, {T. J.} and V. Pelassa and M. Pepe and M. Pesce-Rollins and F. Piron and Porter, {T. A.} and S. Rain{\`o} and R. Rando and M. Razzano and A. Readhead and A. Reimer and O. Reimer and Richards, {J. L.} and J. Ripken and S. Ritz and M. Roth and Sadrozinski, {H. F.W.} and D. Sanchez and A. Sander and Scargle, {J. D.} and C. Sgr{\`o} and Siskind, {E. J.} and Smith, {P. D.} and G. Spandre and P. Spinelli and L. Stawarz and M. Stevenson and Strickm, {M. S.} and Sokolovsky, {K. V.} and Suson, {D. J.} and H. Takahashi and T. Takahashi and T. Tanaka and Thayer, {J. B.} and Thayer, {J. G.} and Thompson, {D. J.} and L. Tibaldo and Torres, {D. F.} and G. Tosti and A. Tramacere and Y. Uchiyama and Usher, {T. L.} and J. Vandenbroucke and V. Vasileiou and N. Vilchez and V. Vitale and Waite, {A. P.} and P. Wang and Wehrle, {A. E.} and Winer, {B. L.} and Wood, {K. S.} and Z. Yang and T. Ylinen and Zensus, {J. A.} and M. Ziegler and J. Aleksić and Antonelli, {L. A.} and P. Antoranz and M. Backes and Barrio, {J. A.} and Gonz{\'a}lez, {J. Becerra} and W. Bednarek and A. Berdyugin and K. Berger and E. Bernardini and A. Biland and O. Blanch and Bock, {R. K.} and A. Boller and G. Bonnoli and P. Bordas and Tridon, {D. Borla} and V. Bosch-Ramon and D. Bose and I. Braun and T. Bretz and M. Camara and E. Carmona and A. Carosi and P. Colin and E. Colombo and Contreras, {J. L.} and J. Cortina and S. Covino and F. Dazzi and {De Angelis}, A. and {De Cea Del Pozo}, E. and {De Lotto}, B. and {De Maria}, M. and {De Sabata}, F. and {Delgado Mendez}, C. and {Diago Ortega}, A. and M. Doert and A. Dom{\'i}nguez and Prester, {D. Dominis} and D. Dorner and M. Doro and D. Elsaesser and D. Ferenc and Fonseca, {M. V.} and L. Font and L{\'o}pez, {R. J.Garc{\'i}a} and M. Garczarczyk and M. Gaug and G. Giavitto and N. Godinovi and D. Hadasch and A. Herrero and D. Hildebrand and D. H{\"o}hne-M{\"o}nch and J. Hose and D. Hrupec and T. Jogler and S. Klepser and T. Kr{\"a}henb{\"u}hl and D. Kranich and J. Krause and {La Barbera}, A. and E. Leonardo and E. Lindfors and S. Lombardi and M. L{\'o}pez and E. Lorenz and P. Majumdar and E. Makariev and G. Maneva and N. Mankuzhiyil and K. Mannheim and L. Maraschi and M. Mariotti and M. Mart{\'i}nez and D. Mazin and M. Meucci and Miranda, {J. M.} and R. Mirzoyan and H. Miyamoto and J. Mold{\'o}n and A. Moralejo and D. Nieto and K. Nilsson and R. Orito and I. Oya and R. Paoletti and Paredes, {J. M.} and S. Partini and M. Pasanen and F. Pauss and Pegna, {R. G.} and Perez-Torres, {M. A.} and M. Persic and J. Peruzzo and J. Pochon and {Prada Moroni}, {P. G.} and F. Prada and E. Prandini and N. Puchades and I. Puljak and T. Reichardt and R. Reinthal and W. Rhode and M. Rib{\'o} and J. Rico and M. Rissi and S. R{\"u}gamer and A. Saggion and K. Saito and Saito, {T. Y.} and M. Salvati and M. S{\'a}nchez-Conde and K. Satalecka and V. Scalzotto and V. Scapin and C. Schultz and T. Schweizer and M. Shayduk and Shore, {S. N.} and A. Sierpowska-Bartosik and A. Sillanp{\"a}{\"a} and J. Sitarek and D. Sobczynska and F. Spanier and S. Spiro and A. Stamerra and B. Steinke and J. Storz and N. Strah and Struebig, {J. C.} and T. Suric and Takalo, {L. O.} and F. Tavecchio and P. Temnikov and T. Terzić and D. Tescaro and M. Teshima and H. Vankov and Wagner, {R. M.} and Q. Weitzel and V. Zabalza and F. Zandanel and R. Zanin and Acciari, {V. A.} and T. Arlen and T. Aune and W. Benbow and D. Boltuch and Bradbury, {S. M.} and Buckley, {J. H.} and V. Bugaev and A. Cannon and A. Cesarini and L. Ciupik and W. Cui and R. Dickherber and M. Errando and A. Falcone and Finley, {J. P.} and G. Finnegan and L. Fortson and A. Furniss and N. Galante and D. Gall and Gillanders, {G. H.} and S. Godambe and J. Grube and R. Guenette and G. Gyuk and D. Hanna and J. Holder and D. Huang and Hui, {C. M.} and Humensky, {T. B.} and P. Kaaret and N. Karlsson and M. Kertzman and D. Kieda and A. Konopelko and H. Krawczynski and F. Krennrich and Lang, {M. J.} and G. Maier and S. McArthur and A. McCann and M. McCutcheon and P. Moriarty and R. Mukherjee and R. Ong and Otte, {A. N.} and D. Pandel and Perkins, {J. S.} and A. Pichel and M. Pohl and J. Quinn and K. Ragan and Reyes, {L. C.} and Reynolds, {P. T.} and E. Roache and Rose, {H. J.} and Rovero, {A. C.} and M. Schroedter and Sembroski, {G. H.} and Senturk, {G. D.} and D. Steele and Swordy, {S. P.} and G. Tešić and M. Theiling and S. Thibadeau and A. Varlotta and S. Vincent and Wakely, {S. P.} and Ward, {J. E.} and Weekes, {T. C.} and A. Weinstein and T. Weisgarber and Williams, {D. A.} and M. Wood and B. Zitzer and M. Villata and Raiteri, {C. M.} and Aller, {H. D.} and Aller, {M. F.} and Arkharov, {A. A.} and Blinov, {D. A.} and P. Calcidese and Chen, {W. P.} and Efimova, {N. V.} and G. Kimeridze and Konstantinova, {T. S.} and Kopatskaya, {E. N.} and E. Koptelova and Kurtanidze, {O. M.} and Kurtanidze, {S. O.} and A. L{\"a}hteenm{\"a}ki and Larionov, {V. M.} and Larionova, {E. G.} and Larionova, {L. V.} and R. Ligustri and Morozova, {D. A.} and Nikolashvili, {M. G.} and Sigua, {L. A.} and Troitsky, {I. S.} and E. Angelakis and M. Capalbi and A. Carrami{\~n}ana and L. Carrasco and P. Cassaro and {De La Fuente}, E. and Gurwell, {M. A.} and Kovalev, {Y. Y.} and Kovalev, {Yu A.} and Krichbaum, {T. P.} and Krimm, {H. A.} and P. Leto and Lister, {M. L.} and G. Maccaferri and Moody, {J. W.} and Y. Mori and I. Nestoras and A. Orlati and C. Pagani and C. Pace and R. Pearson and M. Perri and Piner, {B. G.} and Pushkarev, {A. B.} and E. Ros and Sadun, {A. C.} and T. Sakamoto and M. Tornikoski and Y. Yatsu and A. Zook",
year = "2011",
month = "2",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1088/0004-637X/727/2/129",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "727",
journal = "Astrophysical Journal",
issn = "0004-637X",
publisher = "IOP Publishing Ltd.",
number = "2",

}

Abdo, AA, Ackermann, M, Ajello, M, Allafort, A, Baldini, L, Ballet, J, Barbiellini, G, Baring, MG, Bastieri, D, Bechtol, K, Bellazzini, R, Berenji, B, Blandford, RD, Bloom, ED, Bonamente, E, Borgland, AW, Bouvier, A, Brandt, TJ, Bregeon, J, Brez, A, Brigida, M, Bruel, P, Buehler, R, Buson, S, Caliandro, GA, Cameron, RA, Cannon, A, Caraveo, PA, Carrigan, S, Casandjian, JM, Cavazzuti, E, Cecchi, C, Çelik, Ö, Charles, E, Chekhtman, A, Cheung, CC, Chiang, J, Ciprini, S, Claus, R, Cohen-Tanugi, J, Conrad, J, Cutini, S, Dermer, CD, De Palma, F, Do Couto E Silva, E, Drell, PS, Dubois, R, Dumora, D, Favuzzi, C, Fegan, SJ, Ferrara, EC, Focke, WB, Fortin, P, Frailis, M, Fuhrmann, L, Fukazawa, Y, Funk, S, Fusco, P, Gargano, F, Gasparrini, D, Gehrels, N, Germani, S, Giglietto, N, Giordano, F, Giroletti, M, Glanzman, T, Godfrey, G, Grenier, IA, Guillemot, L, Guiriec, S, Hayashida, M, Hays, E, Horan, D, Hughes, RE, Jóhannesson, G, Johnson, AS, Johnson, WN, Kadler, M, Kamae, T, Katagiri, H, Kataoka, J, Knödlseder, J, Kuss, M, Lande, J, Latronico, L, Lee, SH, Lemoine-Goumard, M, Longo, F, Loparco, F, Lott, B, Lovellette, MN, Lubrano, P, Madejski, GM, Makeev, A, Max-Moerbeck, W, Mazziotta, MN, McEnery, JE, Mehault, J, Michelson, PF, Mitthumsiri, W, Mizuno, T, Moiseev, AA, Monte, C, Monzani, ME, Morselli, A, Moskalenko, IV, Murgia, S, Naumann-Godo, M, Nishino, S, Nolan, PL, Norris, JP, Nuss, E, Ohsugi, T, Okumura, A, Omodei, N, Orlando, E, Ormes, JF, Paneque, D, Panetta, JH, Parent, D, Pavlidou, V, Pearson, TJ, Pelassa, V, Pepe, M, Pesce-Rollins, M, Piron, F, Porter, TA, Rainò, S, Rando, R, Razzano, M, Readhead, A, Reimer, A, Reimer, O, Richards, JL, Ripken, J, Ritz, S, Roth, M, Sadrozinski, HFW, Sanchez, D, Sander, A, Scargle, JD, Sgrò, C, Siskind, EJ, Smith, PD, Spandre, G, Spinelli, P, Stawarz, L, Stevenson, M, Strickm, MS, Sokolovsky, KV, Suson, DJ, Takahashi, H, Takahashi, T, Tanaka, T, Thayer, JB, Thayer, JG, Thompson, DJ, Tibaldo, L, Torres, DF, Tosti, G, Tramacere, A, Uchiyama, Y, Usher, TL, Vandenbroucke, J, Vasileiou, V, Vilchez, N, Vitale, V, Waite, AP, Wang, P, Wehrle, AE, Winer, BL, Wood, KS, Yang, Z, Ylinen, T, Zensus, JA, Ziegler, M, Aleksić, J, Antonelli, LA, Antoranz, P, Backes, M, Barrio, JA, González, JB, Bednarek, W, Berdyugin, A, Berger, K, Bernardini, E, Biland, A, Blanch, O, Bock, RK, Boller, A, Bonnoli, G, Bordas, P, Tridon, DB, Bosch-Ramon, V, Bose, D, Braun, I, Bretz, T, Camara, M, Carmona, E, Carosi, A, Colin, P, Colombo, E, Contreras, JL, Cortina, J, Covino, S, Dazzi, F, De Angelis, A, De Cea Del Pozo, E, De Lotto, B, De Maria, M, De Sabata, F, Delgado Mendez, C, Diago Ortega, A, Doert, M, Domínguez, A, Prester, DD, Dorner, D, Doro, M, Elsaesser, D, Ferenc, D, Fonseca, MV, Font, L, López, RJG, Garczarczyk, M, Gaug, M, Giavitto, G, Godinovi, N, Hadasch, D, Herrero, A, Hildebrand, D, Höhne-Mönch, D, Hose, J, Hrupec, D, Jogler, T, Klepser, S, Krähenbühl, T, Kranich, D, Krause, J, La Barbera, A, Leonardo, E, Lindfors, E, Lombardi, S, López, M, Lorenz, E, Majumdar, P, Makariev, E, Maneva, G, Mankuzhiyil, N, Mannheim, K, Maraschi, L, Mariotti, M, Martínez, M, Mazin, D, Meucci, M, Miranda, JM, Mirzoyan, R, Miyamoto, H, Moldón, J, Moralejo, A, Nieto, D, Nilsson, K, Orito, R, Oya, I, Paoletti, R, Paredes, JM, Partini, S, Pasanen, M, Pauss, F, Pegna, RG, Perez-Torres, MA, Persic, M, Peruzzo, J, Pochon, J, Prada Moroni, PG, Prada, F, Prandini, E, Puchades, N, Puljak, I, Reichardt, T, Reinthal, R, Rhode, W, Ribó, M, Rico, J, Rissi, M, Rügamer, S, Saggion, A, Saito, K, Saito, TY, Salvati, M, Sánchez-Conde, M, Satalecka, K, Scalzotto, V, Scapin, V, Schultz, C, Schweizer, T, Shayduk, M, Shore, SN, Sierpowska-Bartosik, A, Sillanpää, A, Sitarek, J, Sobczynska, D, Spanier, F, Spiro, S, Stamerra, A, Steinke, B, Storz, J, Strah, N, Struebig, JC, Suric, T, Takalo, LO, Tavecchio, F, Temnikov, P, Terzić, T, Tescaro, D, Teshima, M, Vankov, H, Wagner, RM, Weitzel, Q, Zabalza, V, Zandanel, F, Zanin, R, Acciari, VA, Arlen, T, Aune, T, Benbow, W, Boltuch, D, Bradbury, SM, Buckley, JH, Bugaev, V, Cannon, A, Cesarini, A, Ciupik, L, Cui, W, Dickherber, R, Errando, M, Falcone, A, Finley, JP, Finnegan, G, Fortson, L, Furniss, A, Galante, N, Gall, D, Gillanders, GH, Godambe, S, Grube, J, Guenette, R, Gyuk, G, Hanna, D, Holder, J, Huang, D, Hui, CM, Humensky, TB, Kaaret, P, Karlsson, N, Kertzman, M, Kieda, D, Konopelko, A, Krawczynski, H, Krennrich, F, Lang, MJ, Maier, G, McArthur, S, McCann, A, McCutcheon, M, Moriarty, P, Mukherjee, R, Ong, R, Otte, AN, Pandel, D, Perkins, JS, Pichel, A, Pohl, M, Quinn, J, Ragan, K, Reyes, LC, Reynolds, PT, Roache, E, Rose, HJ, Rovero, AC, Schroedter, M, Sembroski, GH, Senturk, GD, Steele, D, Swordy, SP, Tešić, G, Theiling, M, Thibadeau, S, Varlotta, A, Vincent, S, Wakely, SP, Ward, JE, Weekes, TC, Weinstein, A, Weisgarber, T, Williams, DA, Wood, M, Zitzer, B, Villata, M, Raiteri, CM, Aller, HD, Aller, MF, Arkharov, AA, Blinov, DA, Calcidese, P, Chen, WP, Efimova, NV, Kimeridze, G, Konstantinova, TS, Kopatskaya, EN, Koptelova, E, Kurtanidze, OM, Kurtanidze, SO, Lähteenmäki, A, Larionov, VM, Larionova, EG, Larionova, LV, Ligustri, R, Morozova, DA, Nikolashvili, MG, Sigua, LA, Troitsky, IS, Angelakis, E, Capalbi, M, Carramiñana, A, Carrasco, L, Cassaro, P, De La Fuente, E, Gurwell, MA, Kovalev, YY, Kovalev, YA, Krichbaum, TP, Krimm, HA, Leto, P, Lister, ML, Maccaferri, G, Moody, JW, Mori, Y, Nestoras, I, Orlati, A, Pagani, C, Pace, C, Pearson, R, Perri, M, Piner, BG, Pushkarev, AB, Ros, E, Sadun, AC, Sakamoto, T, Tornikoski, M, Yatsu, Y & Zook, A 2011, 'Insights into the high-energy γ-ray emission of Markarian 501 from extensive multifrequency observations in the Fermi era', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 727, no. 2. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/727/2/129

Insights into the high-energy γ-ray emission of Markarian 501 from extensive multifrequency observations in the Fermi era. / Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Cannon, A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Carrigan, S.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; Dermer, C. D.; De Palma, F.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Fortin, P.; Frailis, M.; Fuhrmann, L.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, W. N.; Kadler, M.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lee, S. H.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Makeev, A.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nishino, S.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pavlidou, V.; Pearson, T. J.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Readhead, A.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Richards, J. L.; Ripken, J.; Ritz, S.; Roth, M.; Sadrozinski, H. F.W.; Sanchez, D.; Sander, A.; Scargle, J. D.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stawarz, L.; Stevenson, M.; Strickm, M. S.; Sokolovsky, K. V.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Wehrle, A. E.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Ylinen, T.; Zensus, J. A.; Ziegler, M.; Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Barrio, J. A.; González, J. Becerra; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Tridon, D. Borla; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Bose, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Camara, M.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Cea Del Pozo, E.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, M.; De Sabata, F.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Prester, D. Dominis; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; López, R. J.García; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Giavitto, G.; Godinovi, N.; Hadasch, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Jogler, T.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Kranich, D.; Krause, J.; La Barbera, A.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, E.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Pasanen, M.; Pauss, F.; Pegna, R. G.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, J.; Pochon, J.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prada, F.; Prandini, E.; Puchades, N.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, T.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rissi, M.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Struebig, J. C.; Suric, T.; Takalo, L. O.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Vankov, H.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; Acciari, V. A.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Benbow, W.; Boltuch, D.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Gillanders, G. H.; Godambe, S.; Grube, J.; Guenette, R.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Huang, D.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Konopelko, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; McCutcheon, M.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Ong, R.; Otte, A. N.; Pandel, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pichel, A.; Pohl, M.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Rovero, A. C.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Senturk, G. D.; Steele, D.; Swordy, S. P.; Tešić, G.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Varlotta, A.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Williams, D. A.; Wood, M.; Zitzer, B.; Villata, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Arkharov, A. A.; Blinov, D. A.; Calcidese, P.; Chen, W. P.; Efimova, N. V.; Kimeridze, G.; Konstantinova, T. S.; Kopatskaya, E. N.; Koptelova, E.; Kurtanidze, O. M.; Kurtanidze, S. O.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Larionov, V. M.; Larionova, E. G.; Larionova, L. V.; Ligustri, R.; Morozova, D. A.; Nikolashvili, M. G.; Sigua, L. A.; Troitsky, I. S.; Angelakis, E.; Capalbi, M.; Carramiñana, A.; Carrasco, L.; Cassaro, P.; De La Fuente, E.; Gurwell, M. A.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Kovalev, Yu A.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Krimm, H. A.; Leto, P.; Lister, M. L.; Maccaferri, G.; Moody, J. W.; Mori, Y.; Nestoras, I.; Orlati, A.; Pagani, C.; Pace, C.; Pearson, R.; Perri, M.; Piner, B. G.; Pushkarev, A. B.; Ros, E.; Sadun, A. C.; Sakamoto, T.; Tornikoski, M.; Yatsu, Y.; Zook, A.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 727, No. 2, 01.02.2011.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Insights into the high-energy γ-ray emission of Markarian 501 from extensive multifrequency observations in the Fermi era

AU - Abdo, A. A.

AU - Ackermann, M.

AU - Ajello, M.

AU - Allafort, A.

AU - Baldini, L.

AU - Ballet, J.

AU - Barbiellini, G.

AU - Baring, M. G.

AU - Bastieri, D.

AU - Bechtol, K.

AU - Bellazzini, R.

AU - Berenji, B.

AU - Blandford, R. D.

AU - Bloom, E. D.

AU - Bonamente, E.

AU - Borgland, A. W.

AU - Bouvier, A.

AU - Brandt, T. J.

AU - Bregeon, J.

AU - Brez, A.

AU - Brigida, M.

AU - Bruel, P.

AU - Buehler, R.

AU - Buson, S.

AU - Caliandro, G. A.

AU - Cameron, R. A.

AU - Cannon, A.

AU - Caraveo, P. A.

AU - Carrigan, S.

AU - Casandjian, J. M.

AU - Cavazzuti, E.

AU - Cecchi, C.

AU - Çelik, Ö

AU - Charles, E.

AU - Chekhtman, A.

AU - Cheung, C. C.

AU - Chiang, J.

AU - Ciprini, S.

AU - Claus, R.

AU - Cohen-Tanugi, J.

AU - Conrad, J.

AU - Cutini, S.

AU - Dermer, C. D.

AU - De Palma, F.

AU - Do Couto E Silva, E.

AU - Drell, P. S.

AU - Dubois, R.

AU - Dumora, D.

AU - Favuzzi, C.

AU - Fegan, S. J.

AU - Ferrara, E. C.

AU - Focke, W. B.

AU - Fortin, P.

AU - Frailis, M.

AU - Fuhrmann, L.

AU - Fukazawa, Y.

AU - Funk, S.

AU - Fusco, P.

AU - Gargano, F.

AU - Gasparrini, D.

AU - Gehrels, N.

AU - Germani, S.

AU - Giglietto, N.

AU - Giordano, F.

AU - Giroletti, M.

AU - Glanzman, T.

AU - Godfrey, G.

AU - Grenier, I. A.

AU - Guillemot, L.

AU - Guiriec, S.

AU - Hayashida, M.

AU - Hays, E.

AU - Horan, D.

AU - Hughes, R. E.

AU - Jóhannesson, G.

AU - Johnson, A. S.

AU - Johnson, W. N.

AU - Kadler, M.

AU - Kamae, T.

AU - Katagiri, H.

AU - Kataoka, J.

AU - Knödlseder, J.

AU - Kuss, M.

AU - Lande, J.

AU - Latronico, L.

AU - Lee, S. H.

AU - Lemoine-Goumard, M.

AU - Longo, F.

AU - Loparco, F.

AU - Lott, B.

AU - Lovellette, M. N.

AU - Lubrano, P.

AU - Madejski, G. M.

AU - Makeev, A.

AU - Max-Moerbeck, W.

AU - Mazziotta, M. N.

AU - McEnery, J. E.

AU - Mehault, J.

AU - Michelson, P. F.

AU - Mitthumsiri, W.

AU - Mizuno, T.

AU - Moiseev, A. A.

AU - Monte, C.

AU - Monzani, M. E.

AU - Morselli, A.

AU - Moskalenko, I. V.

AU - Murgia, S.

AU - Naumann-Godo, M.

AU - Nishino, S.

AU - Nolan, P. L.

AU - Norris, J. P.

AU - Nuss, E.

AU - Ohsugi, T.

AU - Okumura, A.

AU - Omodei, N.

AU - Orlando, E.

AU - Ormes, J. F.

AU - Paneque, D.

AU - Panetta, J. H.

AU - Parent, D.

AU - Pavlidou, V.

AU - Pearson, T. J.

AU - Pelassa, V.

AU - Pepe, M.

AU - Pesce-Rollins, M.

AU - Piron, F.

AU - Porter, T. A.

AU - Rainò, S.

AU - Rando, R.

AU - Razzano, M.

AU - Readhead, A.

AU - Reimer, A.

AU - Reimer, O.

AU - Richards, J. L.

AU - Ripken, J.

AU - Ritz, S.

AU - Roth, M.

AU - Sadrozinski, H. F.W.

AU - Sanchez, D.

AU - Sander, A.

AU - Scargle, J. D.

AU - Sgrò, C.

AU - Siskind, E. J.

AU - Smith, P. D.

AU - Spandre, G.

AU - Spinelli, P.

AU - Stawarz, L.

AU - Stevenson, M.

AU - Strickm, M. S.

AU - Sokolovsky, K. V.

AU - Suson, D. J.

AU - Takahashi, H.

AU - Takahashi, T.

AU - Tanaka, T.

AU - Thayer, J. B.

AU - Thayer, J. G.

AU - Thompson, D. J.

AU - Tibaldo, L.

AU - Torres, D. F.

AU - Tosti, G.

AU - Tramacere, A.

AU - Uchiyama, Y.

AU - Usher, T. L.

AU - Vandenbroucke, J.

AU - Vasileiou, V.

AU - Vilchez, N.

AU - Vitale, V.

AU - Waite, A. P.

AU - Wang, P.

AU - Wehrle, A. E.

AU - Winer, B. L.

AU - Wood, K. S.

AU - Yang, Z.

AU - Ylinen, T.

AU - Zensus, J. A.

AU - Ziegler, M.

AU - Aleksić, J.

AU - Antonelli, L. A.

AU - Antoranz, P.

AU - Backes, M.

AU - Barrio, J. A.

AU - González, J. Becerra

AU - Bednarek, W.

AU - Berdyugin, A.

AU - Berger, K.

AU - Bernardini, E.

AU - Biland, A.

AU - Blanch, O.

AU - Bock, R. K.

AU - Boller, A.

AU - Bonnoli, G.

AU - Bordas, P.

AU - Tridon, D. Borla

AU - Bosch-Ramon, V.

AU - Bose, D.

AU - Braun, I.

AU - Bretz, T.

AU - Camara, M.

AU - Carmona, E.

AU - Carosi, A.

AU - Colin, P.

AU - Colombo, E.

AU - Contreras, J. L.

AU - Cortina, J.

AU - Covino, S.

AU - Dazzi, F.

AU - De Angelis, A.

AU - De Cea Del Pozo, E.

AU - De Lotto, B.

AU - De Maria, M.

AU - De Sabata, F.

AU - Delgado Mendez, C.

AU - Diago Ortega, A.

AU - Doert, M.

AU - Domínguez, A.

AU - Prester, D. Dominis

AU - Dorner, D.

AU - Doro, M.

AU - Elsaesser, D.

AU - Ferenc, D.

AU - Fonseca, M. V.

AU - Font, L.

AU - López, R. J.García

AU - Garczarczyk, M.

AU - Gaug, M.

AU - Giavitto, G.

AU - Godinovi, N.

AU - Hadasch, D.

AU - Herrero, A.

AU - Hildebrand, D.

AU - Höhne-Mönch, D.

AU - Hose, J.

AU - Hrupec, D.

AU - Jogler, T.

AU - Klepser, S.

AU - Krähenbühl, T.

AU - Kranich, D.

AU - Krause, J.

AU - La Barbera, A.

AU - Leonardo, E.

AU - Lindfors, E.

AU - Lombardi, S.

AU - López, M.

AU - Lorenz, E.

AU - Majumdar, P.

AU - Makariev, E.

AU - Maneva, G.

AU - Mankuzhiyil, N.

AU - Mannheim, K.

AU - Maraschi, L.

AU - Mariotti, M.

AU - Martínez, M.

AU - Mazin, D.

AU - Meucci, M.

AU - Miranda, J. M.

AU - Mirzoyan, R.

AU - Miyamoto, H.

AU - Moldón, J.

AU - Moralejo, A.

AU - Nieto, D.

AU - Nilsson, K.

AU - Orito, R.

AU - Oya, I.

AU - Paoletti, R.

AU - Paredes, J. M.

AU - Partini, S.

AU - Pasanen, M.

AU - Pauss, F.

AU - Pegna, R. G.

AU - Perez-Torres, M. A.

AU - Persic, M.

AU - Peruzzo, J.

AU - Pochon, J.

AU - Prada Moroni, P. G.

AU - Prada, F.

AU - Prandini, E.

AU - Puchades, N.

AU - Puljak, I.

AU - Reichardt, T.

AU - Reinthal, R.

AU - Rhode, W.

AU - Ribó, M.

AU - Rico, J.

AU - Rissi, M.

AU - Rügamer, S.

AU - Saggion, A.

AU - Saito, K.

AU - Saito, T. Y.

AU - Salvati, M.

AU - Sánchez-Conde, M.

AU - Satalecka, K.

AU - Scalzotto, V.

AU - Scapin, V.

AU - Schultz, C.

AU - Schweizer, T.

AU - Shayduk, M.

AU - Shore, S. N.

AU - Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.

AU - Sillanpää, A.

AU - Sitarek, J.

AU - Sobczynska, D.

AU - Spanier, F.

AU - Spiro, S.

AU - Stamerra, A.

AU - Steinke, B.

AU - Storz, J.

AU - Strah, N.

AU - Struebig, J. C.

AU - Suric, T.

AU - Takalo, L. O.

AU - Tavecchio, F.

AU - Temnikov, P.

AU - Terzić, T.

AU - Tescaro, D.

AU - Teshima, M.

AU - Vankov, H.

AU - Wagner, R. M.

AU - Weitzel, Q.

AU - Zabalza, V.

AU - Zandanel, F.

AU - Zanin, R.

AU - Acciari, V. A.

AU - Arlen, T.

AU - Aune, T.

AU - Benbow, W.

AU - Boltuch, D.

AU - Bradbury, S. M.

AU - Buckley, J. H.

AU - Bugaev, V.

AU - Cannon, A.

AU - Cesarini, A.

AU - Ciupik, L.

AU - Cui, W.

AU - Dickherber, R.

AU - Errando, M.

AU - Falcone, A.

AU - Finley, J. P.

AU - Finnegan, G.

AU - Fortson, L.

AU - Furniss, A.

AU - Galante, N.

AU - Gall, D.

AU - Gillanders, G. H.

AU - Godambe, S.

AU - Grube, J.

AU - Guenette, R.

AU - Gyuk, G.

AU - Hanna, D.

AU - Holder, J.

AU - Huang, D.

AU - Hui, C. M.

AU - Humensky, T. B.

AU - Kaaret, P.

AU - Karlsson, N.

AU - Kertzman, M.

AU - Kieda, D.

AU - Konopelko, A.

AU - Krawczynski, H.

AU - Krennrich, F.

AU - Lang, M. J.

AU - Maier, G.

AU - McArthur, S.

AU - McCann, A.

AU - McCutcheon, M.

AU - Moriarty, P.

AU - Mukherjee, R.

AU - Ong, R.

AU - Otte, A. N.

AU - Pandel, D.

AU - Perkins, J. S.

AU - Pichel, A.

AU - Pohl, M.

AU - Quinn, J.

AU - Ragan, K.

AU - Reyes, L. C.

AU - Reynolds, P. T.

AU - Roache, E.

AU - Rose, H. J.

AU - Rovero, A. C.

AU - Schroedter, M.

AU - Sembroski, G. H.

AU - Senturk, G. D.

AU - Steele, D.

AU - Swordy, S. P.

AU - Tešić, G.

AU - Theiling, M.

AU - Thibadeau, S.

AU - Varlotta, A.

AU - Vincent, S.

AU - Wakely, S. P.

AU - Ward, J. E.

AU - Weekes, T. C.

AU - Weinstein, A.

AU - Weisgarber, T.

AU - Williams, D. A.

AU - Wood, M.

AU - Zitzer, B.

AU - Villata, M.

AU - Raiteri, C. M.

AU - Aller, H. D.

AU - Aller, M. F.

AU - Arkharov, A. A.

AU - Blinov, D. A.

AU - Calcidese, P.

AU - Chen, W. P.

AU - Efimova, N. V.

AU - Kimeridze, G.

AU - Konstantinova, T. S.

AU - Kopatskaya, E. N.

AU - Koptelova, E.

AU - Kurtanidze, O. M.

AU - Kurtanidze, S. O.

AU - Lähteenmäki, A.

AU - Larionov, V. M.

AU - Larionova, E. G.

AU - Larionova, L. V.

AU - Ligustri, R.

AU - Morozova, D. A.

AU - Nikolashvili, M. G.

AU - Sigua, L. A.

AU - Troitsky, I. S.

AU - Angelakis, E.

AU - Capalbi, M.

AU - Carramiñana, A.

AU - Carrasco, L.

AU - Cassaro, P.

AU - De La Fuente, E.

AU - Gurwell, M. A.

AU - Kovalev, Y. Y.

AU - Kovalev, Yu A.

AU - Krichbaum, T. P.

AU - Krimm, H. A.

AU - Leto, P.

AU - Lister, M. L.

AU - Maccaferri, G.

AU - Moody, J. W.

AU - Mori, Y.

AU - Nestoras, I.

AU - Orlati, A.

AU - Pagani, C.

AU - Pace, C.

AU - Pearson, R.

AU - Perri, M.

AU - Piner, B. G.

AU - Pushkarev, A. B.

AU - Ros, E.

AU - Sadun, A. C.

AU - Sakamoto, T.

AU - Tornikoski, M.

AU - Yatsu, Y.

AU - Zook, A.

PY - 2011/2/1

Y1 - 2011/2/1

N2 - We report on the γ-ray activity of the blazar Mrk 501 during the first 480 days of Fermi operation. We find that the average Large Area Telescope (LAT) γ-ray spectrum of Mrk 501 can be well described by a single power-law function with a photon index of 1.78 ± 0.03. While we observe relatively mild flux variations with the Fermi-LAT (within less than a factor of two), we detect remarkable spectral variability where the hardest observed spectral index within the LAT energy range is 1.52 ± 0.14, and the softest one is 2.51 ± 0.20. These unexpected spectral changes do not correlate with the measured flux variations above 0.3 GeV. In this paper, we also present the first results from the 4.5 month long multifrequency campaign (2009 March 15-August 1) on Mrk 501, which included the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), Swift, RXTE, MAGIC, and VERITAS, the F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, and other collaborations and instruments which provided excellent temporal and energy coverage of the source throughout the entire campaign. The extensive radio to TeV data set from this campaign provides us with the most detailed spectral energy distribution yet collected for this source during its relatively low activity. The average spectral energy distribution of Mrk 501 is well described by the standard one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model. In the framework of this model, we find that the dominant emission region is characterized by a size ≲0.1 pc (comparable within a factor of few to the size of the partially resolved VLBA core at 15-43 GHz), and that the total jet power (≃1044 erg s-1) constitutes only a small fraction (∼10-3) of the Eddington luminosity. The energy distribution of the freshly accelerated radiating electrons required to fit the time-averaged data has a broken power-law form in the energy range 0.3 GeV-10 TeV, with spectral indices 2.2 and 2.7 below and above the break energy of 20 GeV. We argue that such a form is consistent with a scenario in which the bulk of the energy dissipation within the dominant emission zone of Mrk 501 is due to relativistic, proton-mediated shocks. We find that the ultrarelativistic electrons and mildly relativistic protons within the blazar zone, if comparable in number, are in approximate energy equipartition, with their energy dominating the jet magnetic field energy by about two orders of magnitude.

AB - We report on the γ-ray activity of the blazar Mrk 501 during the first 480 days of Fermi operation. We find that the average Large Area Telescope (LAT) γ-ray spectrum of Mrk 501 can be well described by a single power-law function with a photon index of 1.78 ± 0.03. While we observe relatively mild flux variations with the Fermi-LAT (within less than a factor of two), we detect remarkable spectral variability where the hardest observed spectral index within the LAT energy range is 1.52 ± 0.14, and the softest one is 2.51 ± 0.20. These unexpected spectral changes do not correlate with the measured flux variations above 0.3 GeV. In this paper, we also present the first results from the 4.5 month long multifrequency campaign (2009 March 15-August 1) on Mrk 501, which included the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), Swift, RXTE, MAGIC, and VERITAS, the F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, and other collaborations and instruments which provided excellent temporal and energy coverage of the source throughout the entire campaign. The extensive radio to TeV data set from this campaign provides us with the most detailed spectral energy distribution yet collected for this source during its relatively low activity. The average spectral energy distribution of Mrk 501 is well described by the standard one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model. In the framework of this model, we find that the dominant emission region is characterized by a size ≲0.1 pc (comparable within a factor of few to the size of the partially resolved VLBA core at 15-43 GHz), and that the total jet power (≃1044 erg s-1) constitutes only a small fraction (∼10-3) of the Eddington luminosity. The energy distribution of the freshly accelerated radiating electrons required to fit the time-averaged data has a broken power-law form in the energy range 0.3 GeV-10 TeV, with spectral indices 2.2 and 2.7 below and above the break energy of 20 GeV. We argue that such a form is consistent with a scenario in which the bulk of the energy dissipation within the dominant emission zone of Mrk 501 is due to relativistic, proton-mediated shocks. We find that the ultrarelativistic electrons and mildly relativistic protons within the blazar zone, if comparable in number, are in approximate energy equipartition, with their energy dominating the jet magnetic field energy by about two orders of magnitude.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84891253144&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84891253144&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1088/0004-637X/727/2/129

DO - 10.1088/0004-637X/727/2/129

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84891253144

VL - 727

JO - Astrophysical Journal

JF - Astrophysical Journal

SN - 0004-637X

IS - 2

ER -