Instrument performance in kepler's first months

Douglas A. Caldwell, Jeffery J. Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey E. Van Cleve, Jon M. Jenkins, Paul R. Gazis, Vic S. Argabright, Eric E. Bachtell, Edward W. Dunham, John C. Geary, Ronald L. Gilliland, Hema Chandrasekaran, Jie Li, Peter Tenenbaum, Hayley Wu, William J. Borucki, Stephen T. Bryson, Jessie L. Dotson, Michael R. Haas, David G. Koch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

102 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Kepler Mission relies on precise differential photometry to detect the 80 parts per million (ppm) signal from an Earth-Sun equivalent transit. Such precision requires superb instrument stability on timescales up to 2 days and systematic error removal to better than 20 ppm. To this end, the spacecraft and photometer underwent 67 days of commissioning, which included several data sets taken to characterize the photometer performance. Because Kepler has no shutter, we took a series of dark images prior to the dust cover ejection, from which we measured the bias levels, dark current, and read noise. These basic detector properties are essentially unchanged from ground-based tests, indicating that the photometer is working as expected. Several image artifacts have proven more complex than when observed during ground testing, as a result of their interactions with starlight and the greater thermal stability in flight, which causes the temperature-dependent artifact variations to be on the timescales of transits. Because of Kepler's unprecedented sensitivity and stability, we have also seen several unexpected systematics that affect photometric precision. We are using the first 43 days of science data to characterize these effects and to develop detection and mitigation methods that will be implemented in the calibration pipeline. Based on early testing, we expect to attain Kepler's planned photometric precision over 80%-90% of the field of view.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)L92-L96
JournalAstrophysical Journal Letters
Volume713
Issue number2 PART 2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2010

Fingerprint

photometer
photometers
transit
artifact
artifacts
Kepler mission
timescale
shutters
dark current
field of view
ejection
systematic errors
photometry
spacecraft
sun
thermal stability
mitigation
dust
flight
calibration

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Caldwell, D. A., Kolodziejczak, J. J., Van Cleve, J. E., Jenkins, J. M., Gazis, P. R., Argabright, V. S., ... Koch, D. G. (2010). Instrument performance in kepler's first months. Astrophysical Journal Letters, 713(2 PART 2), L92-L96. https://doi.org/10.1088/2041-8205/713/2/L92
Caldwell, Douglas A. ; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J. ; Van Cleve, Jeffrey E. ; Jenkins, Jon M. ; Gazis, Paul R. ; Argabright, Vic S. ; Bachtell, Eric E. ; Dunham, Edward W. ; Geary, John C. ; Gilliland, Ronald L. ; Chandrasekaran, Hema ; Li, Jie ; Tenenbaum, Peter ; Wu, Hayley ; Borucki, William J. ; Bryson, Stephen T. ; Dotson, Jessie L. ; Haas, Michael R. ; Koch, David G. / Instrument performance in kepler's first months. In: Astrophysical Journal Letters. 2010 ; Vol. 713, No. 2 PART 2. pp. L92-L96.
@article{fec05f59922642a4bfb972aec7b16262,
title = "Instrument performance in kepler's first months",
abstract = "The Kepler Mission relies on precise differential photometry to detect the 80 parts per million (ppm) signal from an Earth-Sun equivalent transit. Such precision requires superb instrument stability on timescales up to 2 days and systematic error removal to better than 20 ppm. To this end, the spacecraft and photometer underwent 67 days of commissioning, which included several data sets taken to characterize the photometer performance. Because Kepler has no shutter, we took a series of dark images prior to the dust cover ejection, from which we measured the bias levels, dark current, and read noise. These basic detector properties are essentially unchanged from ground-based tests, indicating that the photometer is working as expected. Several image artifacts have proven more complex than when observed during ground testing, as a result of their interactions with starlight and the greater thermal stability in flight, which causes the temperature-dependent artifact variations to be on the timescales of transits. Because of Kepler's unprecedented sensitivity and stability, we have also seen several unexpected systematics that affect photometric precision. We are using the first 43 days of science data to characterize these effects and to develop detection and mitigation methods that will be implemented in the calibration pipeline. Based on early testing, we expect to attain Kepler's planned photometric precision over 80{\%}-90{\%} of the field of view.",
author = "Caldwell, {Douglas A.} and Kolodziejczak, {Jeffery J.} and {Van Cleve}, {Jeffrey E.} and Jenkins, {Jon M.} and Gazis, {Paul R.} and Argabright, {Vic S.} and Bachtell, {Eric E.} and Dunham, {Edward W.} and Geary, {John C.} and Gilliland, {Ronald L.} and Hema Chandrasekaran and Jie Li and Peter Tenenbaum and Hayley Wu and Borucki, {William J.} and Bryson, {Stephen T.} and Dotson, {Jessie L.} and Haas, {Michael R.} and Koch, {David G.}",
year = "2010",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1088/2041-8205/713/2/L92",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "713",
pages = "L92--L96",
journal = "Astrophysical Journal Letters",
issn = "2041-8205",
publisher = "IOP Publishing Ltd.",
number = "2 PART 2",

}

Caldwell, DA, Kolodziejczak, JJ, Van Cleve, JE, Jenkins, JM, Gazis, PR, Argabright, VS, Bachtell, EE, Dunham, EW, Geary, JC, Gilliland, RL, Chandrasekaran, H, Li, J, Tenenbaum, P, Wu, H, Borucki, WJ, Bryson, ST, Dotson, JL, Haas, MR & Koch, DG 2010, 'Instrument performance in kepler's first months', Astrophysical Journal Letters, vol. 713, no. 2 PART 2, pp. L92-L96. https://doi.org/10.1088/2041-8205/713/2/L92

Instrument performance in kepler's first months. / Caldwell, Douglas A.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Van Cleve, Jeffrey E.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Gazis, Paul R.; Argabright, Vic S.; Bachtell, Eric E.; Dunham, Edward W.; Geary, John C.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Chandrasekaran, Hema; Li, Jie; Tenenbaum, Peter; Wu, Hayley; Borucki, William J.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Haas, Michael R.; Koch, David G.

In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, Vol. 713, No. 2 PART 2, 01.01.2010, p. L92-L96.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Instrument performance in kepler's first months

AU - Caldwell, Douglas A.

AU - Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.

AU - Van Cleve, Jeffrey E.

AU - Jenkins, Jon M.

AU - Gazis, Paul R.

AU - Argabright, Vic S.

AU - Bachtell, Eric E.

AU - Dunham, Edward W.

AU - Geary, John C.

AU - Gilliland, Ronald L.

AU - Chandrasekaran, Hema

AU - Li, Jie

AU - Tenenbaum, Peter

AU - Wu, Hayley

AU - Borucki, William J.

AU - Bryson, Stephen T.

AU - Dotson, Jessie L.

AU - Haas, Michael R.

AU - Koch, David G.

PY - 2010/1/1

Y1 - 2010/1/1

N2 - The Kepler Mission relies on precise differential photometry to detect the 80 parts per million (ppm) signal from an Earth-Sun equivalent transit. Such precision requires superb instrument stability on timescales up to 2 days and systematic error removal to better than 20 ppm. To this end, the spacecraft and photometer underwent 67 days of commissioning, which included several data sets taken to characterize the photometer performance. Because Kepler has no shutter, we took a series of dark images prior to the dust cover ejection, from which we measured the bias levels, dark current, and read noise. These basic detector properties are essentially unchanged from ground-based tests, indicating that the photometer is working as expected. Several image artifacts have proven more complex than when observed during ground testing, as a result of their interactions with starlight and the greater thermal stability in flight, which causes the temperature-dependent artifact variations to be on the timescales of transits. Because of Kepler's unprecedented sensitivity and stability, we have also seen several unexpected systematics that affect photometric precision. We are using the first 43 days of science data to characterize these effects and to develop detection and mitigation methods that will be implemented in the calibration pipeline. Based on early testing, we expect to attain Kepler's planned photometric precision over 80%-90% of the field of view.

AB - The Kepler Mission relies on precise differential photometry to detect the 80 parts per million (ppm) signal from an Earth-Sun equivalent transit. Such precision requires superb instrument stability on timescales up to 2 days and systematic error removal to better than 20 ppm. To this end, the spacecraft and photometer underwent 67 days of commissioning, which included several data sets taken to characterize the photometer performance. Because Kepler has no shutter, we took a series of dark images prior to the dust cover ejection, from which we measured the bias levels, dark current, and read noise. These basic detector properties are essentially unchanged from ground-based tests, indicating that the photometer is working as expected. Several image artifacts have proven more complex than when observed during ground testing, as a result of their interactions with starlight and the greater thermal stability in flight, which causes the temperature-dependent artifact variations to be on the timescales of transits. Because of Kepler's unprecedented sensitivity and stability, we have also seen several unexpected systematics that affect photometric precision. We are using the first 43 days of science data to characterize these effects and to develop detection and mitigation methods that will be implemented in the calibration pipeline. Based on early testing, we expect to attain Kepler's planned photometric precision over 80%-90% of the field of view.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=77950549956&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=77950549956&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1088/2041-8205/713/2/L92

DO - 10.1088/2041-8205/713/2/L92

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:77950549956

VL - 713

SP - L92-L96

JO - Astrophysical Journal Letters

JF - Astrophysical Journal Letters

SN - 2041-8205

IS - 2 PART 2

ER -

Caldwell DA, Kolodziejczak JJ, Van Cleve JE, Jenkins JM, Gazis PR, Argabright VS et al. Instrument performance in kepler's first months. Astrophysical Journal Letters. 2010 Jan 1;713(2 PART 2):L92-L96. https://doi.org/10.1088/2041-8205/713/2/L92