Insulin and exercise differentially regulate PI3-kinase and glycogen synthase in human skeletal muscle

Donal J. O'Gorman, Luis F. Del Aguila, David L. Williamson, IV, Raj K. Krishnan, John P. Kirwan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine the separate and combined effects of exercise and insulin on the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) and glycogen synthase in human skeletal muscle in vivo. Seven healthy men performed three trials in random order. The trials included 1) ingestion of 2 g/kg body wt carbohydrate in a 10% solution (CHO); 2) 75 min of semirecumbent cycling exercise at 75% of peak O2 consumption; followed by 5 x 1-min maximal sprints (Ex); and 3) Ex, immediately followed by ingestion of the carbohydrate solution (ExCHO). Plasma glucose and insulin were increased (P < 0.05) at 15 and 30 (Post-15 and Post-30) min after the trial during CHO and ExCHO, although insulin was lower for ExCHO. Hyperinsulinemia during recovery in CHO and ExCHO led to an increase (P < 0.001) in PI3-kinase activity at Post-30 compared with basal, although the increase was lower (P < 0.004) for ExCHO. Furthermore, PI3-kinase activity was suppressed (P < 0.02) immediately after exercise (Post-0) during Ex and ExCHO. Area under the insulin response curve for all trials was positively associated with PI3-kinase activity (r = 0.66, P < 0.001). Glycogen synthase activity did not increase during CHO but was increased (P < 0.05) at Post-0 and Post-30 during Ex and ExCHO. Ingestion of the drink increased (P < 0.05) carbohydrate oxidation during CHO and ExCHO, although the increase after ExCHO was lower (P < 0.05) than CHO. Carbohydrate oxidation was directly correlated with PI3-kinase activity for all trials (r = 0.63, P < 0.001). In conclusion, under resting conditions, ingestion of a carbohydrate solution led to activation of the PI3-kinase pathway and oxidation of the carbohydrate. However, when carbohydrate was ingested after intense exercise, the PI3-kinase response was attenuated and glycogen synthase activity was augmented, thus facilitating nonoxidative metabolism or storage of the carbohydrate. Activation of glycogen synthase was independent of PI3-kinase.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1412-1419
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Applied Physiology
Volume89
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2000

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Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase
Glycogen Synthase
Skeletal Muscle
Carbohydrates
Exercise
Insulin
Eating
Hyperinsulinism
Glucose

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physiology
  • Endocrinology
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Cite this

O'Gorman, Donal J. ; Del Aguila, Luis F. ; Williamson, IV, David L. ; Krishnan, Raj K. ; Kirwan, John P. / Insulin and exercise differentially regulate PI3-kinase and glycogen synthase in human skeletal muscle. In: Journal of Applied Physiology. 2000 ; Vol. 89, No. 4. pp. 1412-1419.
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abstract = "The purpose of this study was to determine the separate and combined effects of exercise and insulin on the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) and glycogen synthase in human skeletal muscle in vivo. Seven healthy men performed three trials in random order. The trials included 1) ingestion of 2 g/kg body wt carbohydrate in a 10{\%} solution (CHO); 2) 75 min of semirecumbent cycling exercise at 75{\%} of peak O2 consumption; followed by 5 x 1-min maximal sprints (Ex); and 3) Ex, immediately followed by ingestion of the carbohydrate solution (ExCHO). Plasma glucose and insulin were increased (P < 0.05) at 15 and 30 (Post-15 and Post-30) min after the trial during CHO and ExCHO, although insulin was lower for ExCHO. Hyperinsulinemia during recovery in CHO and ExCHO led to an increase (P < 0.001) in PI3-kinase activity at Post-30 compared with basal, although the increase was lower (P < 0.004) for ExCHO. Furthermore, PI3-kinase activity was suppressed (P < 0.02) immediately after exercise (Post-0) during Ex and ExCHO. Area under the insulin response curve for all trials was positively associated with PI3-kinase activity (r = 0.66, P < 0.001). Glycogen synthase activity did not increase during CHO but was increased (P < 0.05) at Post-0 and Post-30 during Ex and ExCHO. Ingestion of the drink increased (P < 0.05) carbohydrate oxidation during CHO and ExCHO, although the increase after ExCHO was lower (P < 0.05) than CHO. Carbohydrate oxidation was directly correlated with PI3-kinase activity for all trials (r = 0.63, P < 0.001). In conclusion, under resting conditions, ingestion of a carbohydrate solution led to activation of the PI3-kinase pathway and oxidation of the carbohydrate. However, when carbohydrate was ingested after intense exercise, the PI3-kinase response was attenuated and glycogen synthase activity was augmented, thus facilitating nonoxidative metabolism or storage of the carbohydrate. Activation of glycogen synthase was independent of PI3-kinase.",
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Insulin and exercise differentially regulate PI3-kinase and glycogen synthase in human skeletal muscle. / O'Gorman, Donal J.; Del Aguila, Luis F.; Williamson, IV, David L.; Krishnan, Raj K.; Kirwan, John P.

In: Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol. 89, No. 4, 2000, p. 1412-1419.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Insulin and exercise differentially regulate PI3-kinase and glycogen synthase in human skeletal muscle

AU - O'Gorman, Donal J.

AU - Del Aguila, Luis F.

AU - Williamson, IV, David L.

AU - Krishnan, Raj K.

AU - Kirwan, John P.

PY - 2000

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N2 - The purpose of this study was to determine the separate and combined effects of exercise and insulin on the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) and glycogen synthase in human skeletal muscle in vivo. Seven healthy men performed three trials in random order. The trials included 1) ingestion of 2 g/kg body wt carbohydrate in a 10% solution (CHO); 2) 75 min of semirecumbent cycling exercise at 75% of peak O2 consumption; followed by 5 x 1-min maximal sprints (Ex); and 3) Ex, immediately followed by ingestion of the carbohydrate solution (ExCHO). Plasma glucose and insulin were increased (P < 0.05) at 15 and 30 (Post-15 and Post-30) min after the trial during CHO and ExCHO, although insulin was lower for ExCHO. Hyperinsulinemia during recovery in CHO and ExCHO led to an increase (P < 0.001) in PI3-kinase activity at Post-30 compared with basal, although the increase was lower (P < 0.004) for ExCHO. Furthermore, PI3-kinase activity was suppressed (P < 0.02) immediately after exercise (Post-0) during Ex and ExCHO. Area under the insulin response curve for all trials was positively associated with PI3-kinase activity (r = 0.66, P < 0.001). Glycogen synthase activity did not increase during CHO but was increased (P < 0.05) at Post-0 and Post-30 during Ex and ExCHO. Ingestion of the drink increased (P < 0.05) carbohydrate oxidation during CHO and ExCHO, although the increase after ExCHO was lower (P < 0.05) than CHO. Carbohydrate oxidation was directly correlated with PI3-kinase activity for all trials (r = 0.63, P < 0.001). In conclusion, under resting conditions, ingestion of a carbohydrate solution led to activation of the PI3-kinase pathway and oxidation of the carbohydrate. However, when carbohydrate was ingested after intense exercise, the PI3-kinase response was attenuated and glycogen synthase activity was augmented, thus facilitating nonoxidative metabolism or storage of the carbohydrate. Activation of glycogen synthase was independent of PI3-kinase.

AB - The purpose of this study was to determine the separate and combined effects of exercise and insulin on the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) and glycogen synthase in human skeletal muscle in vivo. Seven healthy men performed three trials in random order. The trials included 1) ingestion of 2 g/kg body wt carbohydrate in a 10% solution (CHO); 2) 75 min of semirecumbent cycling exercise at 75% of peak O2 consumption; followed by 5 x 1-min maximal sprints (Ex); and 3) Ex, immediately followed by ingestion of the carbohydrate solution (ExCHO). Plasma glucose and insulin were increased (P < 0.05) at 15 and 30 (Post-15 and Post-30) min after the trial during CHO and ExCHO, although insulin was lower for ExCHO. Hyperinsulinemia during recovery in CHO and ExCHO led to an increase (P < 0.001) in PI3-kinase activity at Post-30 compared with basal, although the increase was lower (P < 0.004) for ExCHO. Furthermore, PI3-kinase activity was suppressed (P < 0.02) immediately after exercise (Post-0) during Ex and ExCHO. Area under the insulin response curve for all trials was positively associated with PI3-kinase activity (r = 0.66, P < 0.001). Glycogen synthase activity did not increase during CHO but was increased (P < 0.05) at Post-0 and Post-30 during Ex and ExCHO. Ingestion of the drink increased (P < 0.05) carbohydrate oxidation during CHO and ExCHO, although the increase after ExCHO was lower (P < 0.05) than CHO. Carbohydrate oxidation was directly correlated with PI3-kinase activity for all trials (r = 0.63, P < 0.001). In conclusion, under resting conditions, ingestion of a carbohydrate solution led to activation of the PI3-kinase pathway and oxidation of the carbohydrate. However, when carbohydrate was ingested after intense exercise, the PI3-kinase response was attenuated and glycogen synthase activity was augmented, thus facilitating nonoxidative metabolism or storage of the carbohydrate. Activation of glycogen synthase was independent of PI3-kinase.

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