Tritrophic plant-herbivore-parasitoid interactions are highly complex and often tightly interwoven. Plant-parasitoid interactions are a fundamental component of such systems with profound implications both for parasitoid foraging efficiency and plant defense. Chemical, plant-based cues are the dominant cues used by parasitoids in long-range foraging to locate cryptic, highly-dispersed hosts within a complex physical and chemical environment. It is well documented that volatile chemical signals produced and released by plants specifically in response to herbivore feeding play an important role in parasitoid foraging. New evidence suggests that, in addition to being highly detectable and reliable indicators of herbivore presence, herbivore-induced plant volatiles may convey herbivore-specific information that allows parasitoids to discriminate even closely-related herbivore species at long range.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Agronomy and Crop Science
- Insect Science