Results are presented from an intercomparison of single-column and cloud-resolving model simulations of a deep, multilayered, mixed-phase cloud system observed during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. This cloud system was associated with strong surface turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes as cold air flowed over the open Arctic Ocean, combined with a low pressure system that supplied moisture at mid-levels. The simulations, performed by 13 single-column and 4 cloud-resolving models, generally overestimate liquid water path and strongly underestimate ice water path, although there is a large spread among models. This finding is in contrast with results for the single-layer, low-level mixed-phase stratocumulus case in Part I, as well as previous studies of shallow mixed-phase Arctic clouds, that showed an underprediction of liquid water path. These results suggest important differences in the ability of models to simulate deeper Arctic mixed-phase clouds versus the shallow, single-layered mixed-phase clouds in Part I. The observed liquid-ice mass ratios were much smaller than in Part I, despite the similarity of cloud temperatures. Thus, models employing microphysics schemes with temperature-based partitioning of cloud liquid and ice masses are not able to produce results consistent with observations for both cases. Models with more sophisticated, two-moment treatment of cloud microphysics produce a somewhat smaller liquid water path closer to observations. Cloud-resolving models tend to produce a larger cloud fraction than single-column models. The liquid water path and cloud fraction have a large impact on the cloud radiative forcing at the surface, which is dominated by long-wave flux.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||17|
|Journal||Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society|
|State||Published - Apr 2009|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Atmospheric Science