Organisms interact in a myriad of ways. Some forms of interaction occur directly between organisms (e.g., predation or resource competition), whereas others are indirect such as modifications of an environment by one individual impacting another (e.g., a carcass changing the nutrient conditions of soil microbial communities). These interactions can be intraspecific or interspecific (see Chapter 11). Both can impact fitness and drive selection resulting in the evolution of some of the complex connections among species in food webs and ecosystems.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
- Social Sciences(all)
- Environmental Science(all)