Objective: To review the temporal trends in the published literature of the surgical management of Wilms tumor (WT) relative to surgical modality and authorship by surgeon specialty (pediatric urology [PU] vs pediatric surgery [PS]). Methods: The MEDLINE/PubMed database was queried for manuscripts published by PU or PS including operative management of WT from 1993-2017. After manuscript review, 187 of 2420 studies were included. Studies were compared by author specialty, country of origin, and represented patients. Results: PU published 32% of included publications. The proportion of first author publications by PU increased over time (25% from 1993-2005 to 39% from 2006-2017, P = .029). While PU were first author on 44% of studies in North America, they were relatively underrepresented internationally. PU and PS were equally likely to be first author on cooperative group studies, which accounted for 19% of the overall publications. 14,958 patients underwent extirpative surgery for WT. There was a small increase in publications reporting the use of minimally-invasive surgery (MIS) and nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) over time (<1% and 4% from 1993-2005 to 2% and 7% from 2006-2017, respectively, P <.001). Compared to PS, PU were significantly more likely to publish on patients managed with MIS and NSS (P = .006 and P < 0.001 respectively). Conclusion: Publications by PU on the surgical management of WT are increasing over time, but are still fewer than PS. PU appeared to be the drivers of the temporal trend towards the increasing use of MIS and NSS in the published literature.
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