Consumption of fossil fuels (i.e., oil, gas, coal) is the major source (86%) for meeting the world's energy needs and is projected to be so for some time to come. Coal accounts for 73% of the world's recoverable reserves of fossil fuels. World consumption of coal is increasing, particularly in Asia. Yet, clean and efficient use of coal presents important research challenges. This paper provides a comparative review of thirteen combustion centers in eight nations, where each has significant research components devoted to coal. Other active combustion centers doing similar work are not included in this review for various reasons. Following an introduction, a section of this review is devoted to each of the thirteen participating centers. In these sections, mission, objectives, research program, representative accomplishments, and directions are addressed. Data are also provided relating to center history, budget, size, and areas of emphasis. Collectively, these centers expend about $72 million per year, conduct over 600 research projects involving 1500 researchers, interact with 700 organizations, and provide an estimated 1000 reports and manuscripts annually. Though centers vary substantially in years of existence, budget size, personnel, and otherwise, on average, centers have 22 years of experience, involve over 110 research personnel, spend over $5 million per year, and conduct nearly 50 projects. All centers are involved in experimental measurements and applications of computerized combustion models, all work on environmental issues, all do substantial work relating to coal combustion, and all work on transferring center technologies. However, research on other fuels, focus on processes and systems, and emerging technologies vary substantially among the participating centers. Directions for centers' research typically include increasing international activity, strong environmental focus, more work on biomass and waste materials, emerging coal energy technologies, and improvement in conversion efficiencies.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Chemical Engineering(all)
- Fuel Technology
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology