During an inflammatory response in the gut, some commensal bacteria such as E. coli can thrive and contribute to disease. Here we demonstrate that enterobactin (Ent), a catecholate siderophore released by E. coli, is a potent inhibitor of myeloperoxidase (MPO), a bactericidal enzyme of the host. Glycosylated Ent (salmochelin) and non-catecholate siderophores (yersiniabactin and ferrichrome) fail to inhibit MPO activity. An E. coli mutant (ΔfepA) that overproduces Ent, but not an Ent-deficient double mutant (ΔaroB/ΔfepA), inhibits MPO activity and exhibits enhanced survival in inflamed guts. This survival advantage is counter-regulated by lipocalin 2, a siderophore-binding host protein, which rescues MPO from Ent-mediated inhibition. Spectral analysis reveals that Ent interferes with compound I [oxoiron, Fe(IV)=O] and reverts the enzyme back to its native ferric [Fe(III)] state. These findings define a fundamental mechanism by which E. coli surpasses the host innate immune responses during inflammatory gut diseases and gains a distinct survival advantage.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Physics and Astronomy(all)