Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a multifactorial syndrome with symptoms of pelvic or perineal pain, urinary frequency and urgency. The etiologies unknown, but several theories have been proposed. Diagnosis is often delayed because most of the conventional evaluation is normal. Pelvic examination is normal except for bladder tenderness. Urodynamics are normal except for increased bladder sensitivity and low capacity. Urinalysis, urine culture and office cystoscopy are also normal. The diagnostic test is cystoscopy under anesthesia with bladder distension. Small submucosal hemorrhages (glomerulations) or ulcers appear after distension. Many empiric treatments have been proposed for IC. None is universally effective, and so treatments are tried sequentially until good symptom relief is achieved. Bladder distension gives excellent (but transient) relief in some patients, especially those with severe bladder inflammation (who also tend be older). A variety of oral, intravesical and adjunctive treatments are also described.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Obstetrics and Gynecology