Interventions for toxoplasma retinochoroiditis: A report by the american academy of ophthalmology

Stephen J. Kim, Ingrid Scott, Gary C. Brown, Melissa M. Brown, Allen C. Ho, Michael S. Ip, Franco M. Recchia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

21 Scopus citations


Objective: To evaluate the available evidence in peer-reviewed publications about the outcomes and safety of interventions for toxoplasma retinochoroiditis (TRC). Methods: Literature searches of the PubMed and the Cochrane Library databases were conducted last on July 20, 2011, with no date restrictions. The searches retrieved 275 unique citations, and 36 articles of possible clinical relevance were selected for full text review. Of these 36 articles, 11 were deemed sufficiently relevant or of interest, and they were rated according to strength of evidence. Results: Eight of the 11 studies reviewed were randomized controlled studies, and none of them demonstrated that routine antibiotic or corticosteroid treatment of TRC favorably affects visual outcomes or reduces lesion size. There is level II evidence from 1 study suggesting that long-term treatment with combined trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole prevented recurrent disease in patients with chronic relapsing TRC. Adverse effects of antibiotic treatment were reported in as many as 25% of patients. There was no evidence supporting the efficacy of other nonmedical treatments such as laser photocoagulation. Conclusions: There is a lack of level I evidence to support the efficacy of routine antibiotic or corticosteroid treatment for acute TRC in immunocompetent patients. There is level II evidence suggesting that long-term prophylactic treatment may reduce recurrences in chronic relapsing TRC. Adverse effects of certain antibiotic regimens are frequent, and patients require regular monitoring and timely discontinuation of the antibiotic in some cases. Financial Disclosure(s): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)371-378
Number of pages8
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2013


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ophthalmology

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