Reconstruction of complex craniomaxillofacial (CMF) defects is challenging due to the highly organized layering of multiple tissue types. Such compartmentalization necessitates the precise and effective use of cells and other biologics to recapitulate the native tissue anatomy. In this study, intra-operative bioprinting (IOB) of different CMF tissues, including bone, skin, and composite (hard/soft) tissues, is demonstrated directly on rats in a surgical setting. A novel extrudable osteogenic hard tissue ink is introduced, which induced substantial bone regeneration, with ≈80% bone coverage area of calvarial defects in 6 weeks. Using droplet-based bioprinting, the soft tissue ink accelerated the reconstruction of full-thickness skin defects and facilitated up to 60% wound closure in 6 days. Most importantly, the use of a hybrid IOB approach is unveiled to reconstitute hard/soft composite tissues in a stratified arrangement with controlled spatial bioink deposition conforming the shape of a new composite defect model, which resulted in ≈80% skin wound closure in 10 days and 50% bone coverage area at Week 6. The presented approach will be absolutely unique in the clinical realm of CMF defects and will have a significant impact on translating bioprinting technologies into the clinic in the future.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Condensed Matter Physics