To investigate early events of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of apple cultivars, a synthetic green fluorescent protein gene (SGFP) was used as a highly sensitive, vital reporter gene. Leaf explants from four apple cultivars ('Delicious', 'Golden Delicious', 'Royal Gala' and 'Greensleeves') were infected with Agrobacterium EHA101 harboring plasmid pDM96.0501. Fluorescence microscopy indicated that SGFP expression was first detected 48 h after infection and quantitative analysis revealed a high T-DNA transfer rate. Plant cells with stably incorporated T-DNA exhibited cell division and developed transgenic calli, followed by formation of transgenic shoots at low frequencies. The detection of SGFP expression with an epifluorescence stereomicroscope confirmed the effectiveness of SGFP as a reporter gene for detection of very early transformation events and for screening of putative transformants. The efficiency of the transformation and regeneration process decreased ca. 10 000-fold from Agrobacterium infection to transgenic shoot regeneration, suggesting that factors other than Agrobacterium interaction and T-DNA transfer are rate-limiting steps in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of apple.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Agronomy and Crop Science
- Plant Science